Guide for Authors

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    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of article
    • Contact details for submission
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Human and animal rights
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Referees
    • Sharing information and materials
    • Submission of data to databases
    PREPARATION
    • NEW SUBMISSIONS
    • References
    • Formatting requirements
    • REVISED SUBMISSIONS
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Nomenclature and units
    • Database linking
    • DNA sequences and GenBank accession numbers
    • Math formulae
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission checklist
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    • NIH Public Access Policy
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    Your Paper Your Way
    your paper your way



    Applied & Translational Genomics is a new open access biomedical journal providing a forum for publication and discussion of cutting edge research and new developments in applied and translational genomics, including information technologies that enable both advances in the field as well as the application of advances to clinical care and educational, ethical, economic, public health, citizen and policy issues pertinent to research advances. As such the Applied & Translational Genomics is a uniquely interdisciplinary journal. Further, it aims to publish new approaches to 'translational genomics', such as studies designed to probe the elasticity and dynamism of molecular processes.

    The Journal's mission is to enhance the knowledge, clinical adoption and discussion of applied and translational genomics worldwide. Its ethics mission is to enable global benefit sharing through the publication of articles, analyses and commentaries of researchers, clinicians, and patient populations situated throughout the world. The journal encourages submissions by authors in the developing world and to support their access to publishing, the Journal invites authors for whom processing fees represent a barrier, to contact the editor about our sliding fee scale policy.

    The remit of the journal is broad to provide wide coverage across applied genomics and translational genomic research. Subject areas include:

    • Agribiotechnology
    • Agrigenomics
    • Applied biotechnology (clinical applications, laboratory development, support)
    • Big data analytics
    • Biobanking
    • Bio informatics
    • Clinical cytogenomics (molecular cytogenetics)
    • Clinical genomics
    • Clinical informatics
    • Clinical nanotechnology
    • Clinical sequencing
    • Companion diagnostics
    • Data banking
    • Digital detection (such as digital PCR)
    • Digital innovations (as related to genomics
    • Epigenetics
    • Education and media (professional and public education; bio-information via online and social media resources)
    • Exome sequencing
    • Ethical, legal and social issues in applied and translational genomics
    • Functional genomics
    • Health informatics
    • Interpretation software
    • Lab-on-a- chip
    • Nanotechnology related to genomics
    • Next generation genomics (in relation to health care)
    • Nutrigenomics
    • Microchip technologies/implants (in relation to genomics)
    • Pharmaceutical industry (new drugs, therapeutic devices, vaccines)
    • Pharmacogenomics
    • Functional Proteomics
    • Personalized Medicine
    • Point of care diagnostics
    • Population/public health genomics
    • Predictive analytics (in relation to genetics/genomics)
    • Social innovations enabling adoption of point of care genomics
    • Virtual/remote digital technologies (in relation to applied genomics)
    • Visualization of biological data

    Types of article

    Letters to the Editor: Letters to the editor are letters in response to current or previously published articles.

    Letters should be no more than 1000 words with a maximum of 12 references.

    Disruptive Technology & the Future:
    This section includes short articles about cutting edge innovations that demonstrate transformative improvement in genomic diagnosis, treatment and prevention or potential paradigm shifts in care delivery models. Articles may provide a brief report on research, application/implementation or an exceptionally interesting analysis. The scope is broad and includes scientific, clinical, technological, innovations impacting the spectrum of development through care monitoring. Sample topic areas include virtual trials, next generation genomics, point of care diagnostics for the third world countries, micro chip implants, digital monitoring, or novel uses of social networking to advance genomics. The format can be identical to reviews. The length should be a minimum of a 1000 words and a maximum of 2000 words. A maximum 2 Tables/illustrations and 20 references are permitted.

    News &Views:
    News & views are commentaries or brief communications presenting laboratory or clinical work, case reports, views or analysis of emerging research, technologies or clinical applications thereof. Commentaries can discuss aspects of clinical adoption of new clinical knowledge or technologies, or descriptions or analyses of significant findings. The format can be identical to reviews. The length should be a minimum of a 1000 words and a maximum of 2000 words. A maximum 2 Tables/illustrations and 20 references are permitted.

    Citizen Science:
    Citizen science articles are brief reports of citizen led initiatives that are advancing applied and translational genomics, and its related fields, emerging technologies or health policy. Brief reports should be no longer than 1000 words with a maximum of 12 references.

    Ethics in Genomics:
    Ethics articles can include either original research or reviews. Original research manuscripts should conform to the requirements of original research articles. Review manuscripts should conform to the requirements of review articles.

    Trends in Genomics and Policy:
    Trends in genomics and policy articles analyze current policy issues in applied and translational genomics. Articles may be conventional policy analyses or transdisciplinary in nature, offering legal, sociological, philosophical, educational, ethical, or technological and scientific perspective or new experimental approaches. They may be opinionated but should remain balanced and are intended to stimulate discussion. The permitted length is 2000-4,000 words and may contain 2-4 items, figures, structures, tables, etc. A maximum of 20 references are permitted.

    Education and Media Briefs:
    Education briefs cover new educational initiatives, insights or perspectives on existing approaches, including those employing social media. They should briefly present the background, identify specific needs and then concentrate on a recent approach and/or findings in context. Educational briefs should not be longer than 2000 words, may display 2-4 items (figures plus tables). The maximum number of references permitted is 20. The journal encourages articles discussing innovative approaches to meeting specific provider, patient or population needs in the developing world.

    Reviews of Books, Biorepositories, Databases, BioInformatics Tools, Clinical Decision Support Tools:
    Reviews of any of these cover new or existing entities with new iterations or applications in applied, translational or clinical genomics. Reviews should briefly introduce the item and concentrate on recent findings/approaches with substantial analysis. Reviews should not exceed 2000 words, may display 2-4 items (figures plus tables) and contain no more than 20 references. The journal encourages reviews discussing innovations that are advancing knowledge, clinical validity or clinical utility.

    Case Reports:
    Case reports discuss a clinical experience employing innovative translational knowledge or technology. Such reports should briefly introduce the background of the new knowledge or technology and the clinical context and focus on the application process, outcome and conclusory analysis, including benefit or detriments. Reports should not exceed 2000 words, may display 2-4 items (figures plus tables) and contain no more than 20 references. The journal encourages reports discussing innovations that are advancing knowledge, clinical validity or clinical utility.

    Review Articles:
    Reviews cover recent research in rapidly progressing or emerging areas of applied and translational genomics. They should briefly set the background and then concentrate on setting recent findings in context. They need to provide a balanced view of developments, even in fields that are controversial, and authors must never concentrate unduly on their own research. Reviews should be no longer than 4000 words and may have 6-8 display items (figures plus tables). The maximum number of references permitted is 50.

    Applied and Translational Genomics also welcomes Book reviews. These should be no longer than 2000 words with 2-3 display items (figures plus tables). Please contact the editor prior to submitting a book review at: cibarash@helixhealthadvisors.com

    Applied and Translational Genomics also welcomes Guest Editorials. Although Guest Editorials are typically invited, the Journal invites you to submit your idea for a guest editorial to the editor at: cibarash@helixhealthadvisors.com. These should not be longer than 1000 words. Display items are not accepted.

    Original Research Articles:
    Original research articles are reports of original research that represents a substantial advance in applied and translational genomics, including immediate or far-reaching implications. Articles should include an Abstract, Introduction, Results, Discussion, Materials and methods, Acknowledgments, and References. Manuscripts should be no more than 7 published pages, excluding references. Accepted papers that are over 8 pages, or 56,000 characters (including spaces), may be returned to the authors for additional editing. There is a limit of 8 display items (figures plus tables). To estimate: One published page is approximately 7000 characters; Count each table or figure as 2450 characters and add to the character count of your manuscript text. Please note that there is no limit on the number of References.

    If you have an idea for an article for any of these categories, please send an email describing the proposal for your review article to the editor at: cibarash@helixhealthadvisors.com

    Supplements:
    The Journal is willing to consider publishing supplements to its regular issues. Supplement proposals may include coverage or proceedings of a roundtable, meeting or conference. Supplements may consist of standard text, audio or video. If you have an idea for a supplement please submit your proposal to the editor at cibarash@helixhealthadvisors.com. Only proposals that maintain the

    Contact details for submission

    Articles for Applied and Translational Genomics should be submitted via the journal's online submission and editorial system at http://ees.elsevier.com/atg.

    Customer support is available 24/7:
    Please use our help site at: http://epsupport.elsevier.com/. Here you will be able to learn more about the online submission and editorial system via interactive tutorials, explore a range of problem solutions via our knowledgebase, and find answers to frequently asked questions. You will also find our 24/7 support contact details should you need any assistance from one of our customer service representatives.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection software iThenticate. See also:

    http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect

    Human and animal rights

    If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

    Conflict of interest

    Applied & Translational Genomics follows the ICMJE recommendations regarding conflict of interest disclosures. All authors are required to report the following information with each submission: (1) All third-party financial support for the work in the submitted manuscript. (2) All financial relationships with any entities that could be viewed as relevant to the general area of the submitted manuscript. (3) All sources of revenue with relevance to the submitted work who made payments to you, or to your institution on your behalf, in the 36 months prior to submission. (4) Any other interactions with the sponsor of outside of the submitted work should also be reported. (5) Any relevant patents or copyrights (planned, pending, or issued). (6) Any other relationships or affiliations that may be perceived by readers to have influenced, or give the appearance of potentially influencing, what you wrote in the submitted work. As a general guideline, it is usually better to disclose a relationship than not. This information will be acknowledged at publication in a Transparency Document link directly in the article. Additional information on the ICMJE recommendations can be found at: http://www.icmje.org/. The form for conflict of interest disclosure can be downloaded here: http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf (if this link does not display properly in your browser, please right-click the link and select "Save Target As..." or "Save Link as..." from the pop-up menu).

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' where authors will retain copyright (for more information on this see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights, including copyright; for details you are referred to http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal is fully open access; all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download upon publication. Permitted (re)use is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses (see http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-policies/oa-license-policy):

    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has an open access fee (also known as: open access publication fee) which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders. The open access fee is all inclusive, Elsevier will not add any additional charges. Depending on local regulations VAT can be charged by local authorities.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $1,500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Referees

    Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

    Sharing information and materials

    It is expected that all new biological or other reagents described in papers published in Applied and Translational Genomics will be made available freely to all qualified members of the scientific community upon written request. If delays in strain or vector distribution are anticipated, or if these are available from sources other than the author(s), this must be indicated and, if the editor thinks it necessary, explained.

    Submission of data to databases

    The editorial policy of Applied and Translational Genomics is to require the use of databases. Deposit of data in the appropriate database(s) is a condition of publication. New nucleotide data must be submitted and deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases and an accession number obtained before the paper can be accepted for publication. Submission to any one of the three collaborating databanks is sufficient to ensure data entry in all.

    The accession number should be included in the manuscript as a footnote on the title page: "Sequence data from this article have been deposited with the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Data Libraries under Accession No. ...." If requested, the database will withhold release of data until publication. The most convenient method for submitting sequence data is by the World Wide Web:

    DDBJ via SAKURA, http://sakura.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/
    EMBL via WEBIN, http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/Submission/webin.html
    GenBank via BankIt, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BankIt/
    Stand-alone submission tool Sequin, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Sequin/
    Mouse Genome Informatics, http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/

    For special types of submissions (for example, genomes, bulk submissions), additional submission protocols are available from the above sites. Database contact information:

    DDBJ:
    Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan
    National Institute of Genetics
    1111 Yata
    Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan
    Telephone: 81 55981 6853; Fax: 81 55981 6849
    E-mail: ddbj@ddbj.nig.ac.jp
    Web URL: http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/

    EMBL
    EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Submissions
    European Bioinformatics Institute
    Wellcome Trust Genome Campus
    Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK
    Telephone: 44 1223 494499; Fax: 44 1223 494472
    E-mail: datasubs@ebi.ac.uk
    Web URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk

    GenBank
    National Center for Biotechnology Information
    National Library of Medicine
    Building 38A, Room 8N-802
    Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Telephone: (301) 496-2475; Fax: (301) 480-9241
    E-mail: info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Web URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    NEW SUBMISSIONS

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
    As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

    References

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

    Formatting requirements

    There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
    If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
    Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

    Figures and tables embedded in text
    Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.

    REVISED SUBMISSIONS

    Use of word processing software
    Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Material and methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    Theory/calculation
    A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion
    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    Conclusions
    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Nomenclature and units

    Authors must use approved nomenclature for all genes, and all manuscripts will undergo a nomenclature check prior to publication. All unapproved symbols must be replaced with approved symbols (throughout the text and figures). To avoid delays to your manuscript please obtain approval for any new gene symbols prior to submitting your manuscript. Copies of emails documenting the approval of any new symbols should accompany all submissions. Approved human gene symbols may be obtained before submission from the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC: contact Dr Elspeth Bruford, EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SD, UK); e-mail: hgnc@genenames.org; http://www.genenames.org/. Approved mouse nomenclature may be obtained before submission from L. J. Maltais, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609-0800, USA; telephone: (207) 288-6429; fax: (207) 288-6132; e-mail: ljm@informatics.jax.org; http://www.informatics.jax.org/nomen/. In mouse, mutant strains and transgenic alleles also require approved symbols; see http://www.informatics.jax.org/. Use of unapproved gene symbols will likely delay publication.

    Human and mouse protein symbols should be denoted in all capital letters (for example, FGF8). Use of "h" and "m" prefixes to distinguish between human and mouse proteins is not permitted. Instead, "mouse" or "human" should be inserted before the relevant protein symbol in cases where it is necessary to distinguish between human and mouse proteins. (This protocol extends to proteins of all other organisms.)

    Authors must use SI units and follow the guidelines for abbreviations and symbols of the IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iupac/jcbn/).

    Database linking

    Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving their readers one-click access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.

    DNA sequences and GenBank accession numbers

    Authors wishing to enable other scientists to use the accession numbers cited in their papers via links to these sources should type this information in the following manner: For each and every accession number cited in an article, authors should type the accession number in bold, underlined text. Letters in the accession number should always be capitalized (see example below). This combination of letters and format will enable the typesetter to recognize the relevant texts as accession numbers and add the required link to GenBank sequences. Example: GenBank accession nos. AI631510 , AI631511 , AI632198 , and BF223228 ), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048 ), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117 ).

    Authors are encouraged to check accession numbers used very carefully. An error in a letter or number can result in a dead link. In the final version of the printed article, the accession number text will not appear bold or underlined. In the final version of the electronic copy, the accession number text will be linked to the appropriate source in the NCBI databases, enabling readers to go directly to that source from the article.

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
    • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
    • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
    TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference management software
    This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.

    Reference formatting
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Reference style
    Text: All citations in the text should refer to:

    1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;

    2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;

    3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.

    Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically. Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1995). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown ...." List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.

    Examples: Reference to a journal publication:

    Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2000. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51-59.

    Reference to a book:

    Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York.

    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

    Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B. , 1999. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith, R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E- Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281-304.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone and fax numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Online proof correction

    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
    We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor.It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).

    NIH Public Access Policy

    Elsevier facilitates author response to the NIH voluntary posting request (referred to as the NIH "Public Access Policy"; see http://www.nih.gov/about/publicaccess/index.htm) by posting the peer-reviewed author's manuscript directly to PubMed Central on request from the author, 12 months after formal publication. Upon notification from Elsevier of acceptance, we will ask you to confirm via e-mail (by e-mailing us at NIHauthorrequest@elsevier.com) that your work has received NIH funding and that you intend to respond to the NIH policy request, along with your NIH award number to facilitate processing. Upon such confirmation, Elsevier will submit to PubMed Central on your behalf a version of your manuscript that will include peer-review comments, for posting 12 months after formal publication. This will ensure that you will have responded fully to the NIH request policy. There will be no need for you to post your manuscript directly with PubMed Central, and any such posting is prohibited.



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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