Guide for Authors
Submissions must fall with the aims and scope of the journal. Annals of Tourism Research is a social sciences journal focusing on academic perspectives on tourism. While striving for a balance of theory and application, Annals is ultimately dedicated to developing theoretical constructs and new approaches which further an understanding of tourism. Its strategies are to invite and encourage offerings from various disciplines; to serve as a forum through which these may interact; and thus to expand the frontiers of knowledge by contributing to the literature on tourism social science.
Types of paperAlongside Tourism Management, Annals is the leading journal in the field. The quality standards of the journal are that papers must be of publishable standard or exceptional merit. These are defined as follows:
To perform its role in the development of a theoretically integrated and methodologically enriched multidisciplinary body of knowledge on tourism, Annals publishes manuscripts dealing with various aspects of this phenomenon. Papers on anthropological, business, economic, educational, environmental, geographic, historical, political, psychological, philosophical, religious, sociological, inter alia, aspects of tourism (including conceptual essays, case studies, and industry -oriented expositions) may be submitted. Purely descriptive manuscripts which do not contribute to the development of knowledge are not considered suitable.
Being a broad social science journal its readership is diverse. So specialist technical (e.g. economics) papers must also be intelligible to a broad social science audience.
• Of exceptional merit: Demonstrates a level of significance, rigor and originality that positions it amongst leading works in tourism and the social sciences. Makes a significant or substantial contribution to theory, knowledge, policy or practice in tourism and is likely to become a primary point of reference in tourism research.
• Of publishable standard: Demonstrates a level of significance, rigor and originality that meets international standards of excellence. Enhances theory, knowledge, policy or practice of the social science of tourism and is likely to become an important point of reference in tourism research.
In addition to Research Papers Annals also publishes Research Notes (RN). RNs are not necessarily mini-papers. They often follow an overlooked train of thought or add a question mark to some findings (this might be challenging or supporting ongoing research concepts and methods; dealing with untested propositions or hypotheses; importing and applying to tourism new models and tools from other fields; promoting multidisciplinary investigation in tourism; reporting or updating on-going longitudinal research; raising issues for debate and investigation; identifying research questions applicable to the industry). Typically, the author(s) should identify a particular theme or issue that they would like to draw to the attention of the research community and develop a short piece specifically on this. The essence lies in the flow and in the convincing statement of cutting edge questions and answers/suggestions for future research.
The RN might begin with a discussion of the problem and an explanation of why it is important, perhaps with some thoughts as to why the issue has been overlooked. It should then produce research results, not by going through the introduction, methods, broad results etc. as would be done for a full paper, but by referring to the wider project on which this note is based (rather than trying to treat this note as a paper in its own right). Then conclusions need to be drawn.If the RN is a theoretical piece, the author needs to ensure that there is enough credible and covering thought in a short introduction before leading to the point of critique/the suggestion or idea. Reviewers will need to be convinced that the development of the argument rings true and does not sound like an opinion piece (which is not a RN but would be something suitable for an invited editorial etc.).
If the RN is set out as a mini paper then it should follow very established methodologies so that not too much room is needed for explanations (if the study in question is based on innovative methodologies then there seems good reason to submit not a RN but a full paper). This type of RN will get to the point quickly, develop a credible methodology, results and get back to the point of departure.The RN should be submitted via the Annals electronic submission service. It should be a maximum of 1500 words (including references, tables, etc.) and it does not require an abstract. It will be subject to a minimum of two reviews. Conflict of interest
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://elsevier6.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923/.
Submission declaration and verificationAuthorship
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors.
The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
Changes to authorshipCopyright
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.
Retained author rightsRole of the funding source
As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details you are referred to: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Please see http://www.elsevier.com/funding.
Funding body agreements and policiesOpen access
Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:
Open AccessAll articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
• No Open Access publication fee
Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC-BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC-BY-NC-SA).
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access.Language (usage and editing services)
Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.
The publication fee for this journal is $1800, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ or visit our customer support site http://support.elsevier.com for more information.
SubmissionWhen submitting a manuscript to the Elsevier Editorial System, authors need to supply/select the following:
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.
• Article Type
• Full Title
• Author(s) details
• Classification: This records the discipline / method used.
• Other Comments
• Attach Main Files:
o Cover Letter (with Author details and affiliations)
o Author Bio: This should include the name(s), the postal/email address of the first author, and a very brief statement about the research interest(s) of the author(s). Its length, whether for single or for all co-authors, must be between 60 and 75 words.
o Title page
o Manuscript (without author details, affiliations and acknowledgements): This should exclude any material that would reveal the identity of the author(s).
o Statement of Contribution: The Annals review policy asks all authors to supply a supporting statement which addresses two questions:
1. What is the contribution to knowledge, theory, policy or practice offered by the paper?
2. How does the paper offer a social science perspective / approach?
Please supply a paragraph of 100-150 words in answer to each question. This statement will be sent to reviewers, so this should exclude any material that would reveal the identity of the author(s).
Please note that an editable file is needed for publication purposes after acceptance, and we ask that you submit source files in the case that your manuscript is accepted.Once the uploading is completed, the system automatically generates an electronic PDF proof, which is then used for reviewing once approved and submitted to the journal by the author. All correspondence, including the editor's decision and request for revisions, will be by e-mail to the corresponding author of the paper.
We strongly suggest you regularly check your spam folder for EES notifications. Update your 'Safe Senders' list to ensure that emails from EES are not filtered into your spam folder.All manuscripts are subject to an initial editorial screening for adherence to the journal style, for anonymity, and for correct use of English. As a result of this your paper will be either accepted for further consideration or returned for revision.
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/atr
Use of wordprocessing softwareArticle structure
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your wordprocessor.
The paper should be made up of three distinct parts: the introduction, the main body, and the conclusion, followed by references, tables, and figures.
Subdivision - numbered sectionsIntroduction
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
The heading for this section is simply INTRODUCTION (IN UPPER CASE).
• The purpose of this section is to set the stage for the main discussion.
• Annals prefers that this section ends by stating the purpose of the research/paper, but without outlining what sequentially will follow.
• If the introduction is short, it appears as one undivided piece. A long introduction of more than 1,500 words can be subdivided. In such a case, the subtitles are in Title Case Format (in italics, but not bold).
INTRODUCTION (this is a Level 1 heading)Subheading in Italics (this is a Level 2 heading)
Next Subheading in Italics (another Level 2 heading)Et cetera (but no Level 3 headings can be accommodated in INTRODUCTION)
Material and methodsTHEMATICALLY APPROPRIATE HEADING (this is the Level 1 heading, in all cap letters, not bold)
• This is the main body of the paper, headed with a section heading capturing the theme/scope/nature of the paper, ALL IN UPPER CASE. Often this heading is somewhat similar to the article title itself.
• The opening discussion begins immediately after the section heading (without a Level 2 subheading intervening). This may include a literature review, if that is not already covered in INTRODUCTION. As much as possible, please use present tense (not past tense) for the literature review.
• The study methodology, if applicable, is then introduced, titled with a Level 2 heading: Study Methods (in italics).
• Then the paper proceeds to discuss study findings and their theoretical and practical applications. The discussion in this section is Subtitled as Appropriate (again in a Level 2 heading, in italics).
• In general, this is how this section is headed/subheaded:
Subheading in Italics (this is a Level 2 heading, in italics, not bold)Subheading in Italics. Et cetera (again a Level 2 heading, in italics, not bold)
All subheadings (Level 2) appear in the same fashion, with no further distinction/variation allowed.If any of the above (Level 2) subheaded parts must in turn be subdivided, then this format should be used:
Subheading in Italics (Level 2)This begins with one or more paragraphs of discussion . . . . and then next levels' subheadings are introduced:Sub-subheading in Italics (Level 3). The concept of carrying capacity suggests that in the case of . . . .
NB This is a run-on subheading; that is, the text begins on the same line as its Level 3 heading. Short sections of one or two paragraphs should not have sub-headings or sub-subheadings.
Annals will not accommodate additional headings beyond the Level 3.Conclusions
• This section, headed simply CONCLUSION (a Level 1 heading), can begin with a restatement of the research problem, followed by a summary of the research conducted and the findings.
• It then proceeds to make concluding remarks, offering insightful comments on the research theme, commenting on the contributions that the study makes to the formation of knowledge in this field, even also suggesting research themes/challenges in years ahead.
• To do justice to the study, this section should not be limited to one or two paragraphs. Its significance/contribution deserves to be insightfully featured here, including remarks which had they been added to the earlier sections would have been premature.
• If the CONCLUSION section is longer than 1,000 words (an average length), one may choose to subdivide it into appropriate Subheadings in Italics, similar to the INTRODUCTION format, above.
Essential title page informationArticle Title
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
The article title (all in UPPER CASE), must be maximum of 52 characters (including blank spaces), with no word hyphenated from the first to the second line. It is also possible to opt for the title: subtitle format. That is, THE TITLE ALL IN UPPER CASE: The Subtitle in Title Case.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American or English spelling (not a mixture of both) and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
• To protect the anonymity of the review process, no acknowledgments are included in the paper. If eventually accepted for publication, an appropriate format will be suggested at that point.
Electronic artworkA detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
• Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
• Submit each figure as a separate file.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".
Please do not:
• Supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
• Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Each table or figure appears on a separate sheet at the end of the paper, with All illustrations should be considered as figures (not charts, diagrams, or exhibitions) in Annals.• No figures (or tables) can be larger than one page of Annals, preferably one page or less in size. All lettering, graph lines, and points on graphs should be sufficiently large to permit reproduction.
• Only very few tables and figures (preferably less than five in total) central to the discussion can be accommodated. The rest, including those with limited value/data, should be deleted and instead their essence incorporated into the body of the text. All tables and figures (including photos) must appear in "portrait", not "landscape", format.
Color artworkFigure captions
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.
• The author(s) should indicate in the manuscript where a table or figure should appear, e.g.
* please insert Table 2 about here• Both tables and figures are identified with Arabic numerals, followed with a very brief one-line descriptive title (about 10 words). Example:
Table 1Figure 1. The Study Area in the Caribbean.
Tourist Arrivals and Foreign Exchange Earnings (1995-98)
NB The title appears above the table.
NB The title appears under the figure, with any footnotes of explanation placed above the title, but in smaller font point size.
TablesCitation in text
• The data in tables should be presented in columns with nonsignificant decimal places omitted. All table columns must have extremely brief headings.
• Clean and uncrowded tables and figures are sought. Notes and comments, including references, are incorporated in the paper text, where the table or figure is first mentioned. If any remain, they are "telegraphically" footnoted, using alphabetic superscripts (not asterisks). References, if not already in the text, take this format: (Smith 2006:207). All such references are also included fully in the reference list. Tables and figures generated by the author need not be sourced. Proof of permission to reproduce previously published material must be supplied with the paper.
• Tables should not be boxed and gridded. No vertical bars can be added and the use of horizontal bars should be limited to 3 or 4, to mark the table heading and its end. See recent issues of Annals for examples.
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Web referencesReference management software
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.
Reference styleThe format for making references in the text is as follows:
Annals follows the referencing style of the American Psychological Association (APA). For full guidelines please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Fifth Edition), ISBN 1-55798-790-4.
• Single reference: ... Smith (2005) suggests that .... Or it is argued that ... (Smith, 2006).
• Multiple references: ... (Cohen, 2006; Harrison, 1999, 2005; Wilkinson, 2006). Please note that authors in this situation appear in alphabetical order (also note the use of punctuation and spacing).
• Page numbers should be given when using specific points from a paper, including direct quotations or referring to a given part of it: ... (Dann, 2004, p. 44). This reference appears at the end of the quotation.
• Use double quotation marks to enclose quotations of less than 40 words. These are included in the running text.
• Longer quotations (40 words or longer) are presented as separate blocks of text, indented 1.3 cms. on both margins, without quotation marks and ending with the reference: ... (2004, p. 37).
• Multi-author sources:
Two authors: Cite both names throughout.
Three to five authors: When cited first in the paper, these should name all co-authors, for example (Smith, Brown, Johnson & Clark, 2005); thereafter, the last name of the first author, followed with et al. (Smith et al., 2005). Please note that et al. is followed by a period but is not italicised.
Works with six or more authors: Cite the surname of the first author followed by et al. for all citations.
• References to personal communication appear in parentheses: ... (J. Jafari, personal communication, November 10, 2008) and are not included in the reference list.
References: Reference List
The heading for this bibliographic list is simply REFERENCES, and is centered. All entries under this heading appear in alphabetic order of authors. Only references cited in the text are listed and all references listed must be cited in the text. Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors.
Journal ArticleIf a journal is paginated by issue please include its issue number as well:
van der Duim, R. (2007). Tourismscapes: An actor-network perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 34, 961-976.
Hollinshead, K. (2006). The shift to constructivism in social enquiry: Some pointers for tourism studies. Tourism Recreation Research, 31(2), 43-58.For multi authors:
Coles, T., Hall, C. M., & Duval, D. (2005). Mobilizing tourism: A post disciplinary critique. Tourism Recreation Research, 30(1), 31-41.
Nash, D. (2007). The study of tourism: Anthropological and sociological beginnings. Oxford: Elsevier.
Smith, M. K. & Robinson, M. (Eds.). (2006). Cultural tourism in a changing world: Politics, participation and (re)presentation. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Chapter in Edited BookMore than one contribution by the same author
Hall, M. (2004). Reflexivity and tourism research: Situating myself and/with others. In J. Phillimore & L. Goodson (Eds.), Qualitative research in tourism: Ontologies, epistemologies and methodologies (pp. 137-155). London: Routledge.
Arrange in date order, including author name for each entry.
Author has two or more publications in the same yearDoctoral Dissertation
If an author has two or more publications in the same year, they are distinguished by placing a, b, etc. after the year. For example, 2008a or 2008b, and they are referred to accordingly in the text.
Sheldon, P. (1984). Economics of tour packaging. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, United States.
Haslam, C. (2008, November 16). One-third of Britain's beaches are contaminated. The Sunday Times Travel, p. 2.
Urry, J. (2001). Globalising the Tourist Gaze. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from Lancaster University, Department of Sociology Web site: http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/sociology/papers/urry-globalising-the-tourist-gaze.pdf
Personal CommunicationsSupplementary data
These are not listed in the reference list (see above, under Textual Citation).
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Submission checklistOther style guidelines
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Phone numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
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