Guide for Authors

Guide for authors in PDF formatGuide for authors in PDF format

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The Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology is the official journal of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. The Annals publishes papers on a broad range of topics in the fields of allergy, asthma, and immunology. All papers accepted for publication in the Annals will appear simultaneously in both the print journal and online.

General Information

Editorial Policies for Authors
Authorship
Authorship Requirements
Changes to Authorship
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Role of the Corresponding Author
Conflict of Interest
Funding/Support
Open Access
Duplicate/Previous Publication
Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
Clinical Trial Registration
Keywords
Language Editing
Reproduced Materials
Revised Manuscripts

Editorial Review and Publication
Books for Review
Editorial Notification
Editorial and Peer Review
Editing
Proofs
Funding Body Agreements
NIH Public Access Policy
Reprints
New Submissions
Article Lengths
Manuscript Preparation
Basic Formatting (Page Setup/Fonts)
Abstracts
Manuscript Submission Requirements
Manuscript Submission items
Cover Letter
Title Page
ManuscriptText File
Acknowledgements
References
Tables
Figures
Figure Legends
CME Learning Objectives, Questions, Rationale and References
CME Honorarium Form
Review Article Honorarium
Clinical Specialty Honorarium
Letter of Permission
eSupplement Material
Article Types/Organization
Original Articles
Letters
Correspondence
Invited Articles
Review Articles
Perspectives
MOC - CME Review
Mechanisms of Disease for the Clinician
Guest Editorials
CME Review Articles
Clinical Perspectives
Clinical Pearls
Challenging Clinical Cases
Book Reviews
Basic Science for the Clinician
 
  

General Information

The Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology is the official journal of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. The Annals acceptance rate is approximately 32%. Median turnaround time from submission to first decision is 22 days, from submission to acceptance is 78 days, and acceptance to publication is 86 days.

Editor-in-Chief:  Gailen D. Marshall, MD PhD
Deputy Editor: Mitchell H. Grayson, MD
Managing Editor: Kimberly K. Stamper, PMP

Inquiries regarding the editorial management of the Annals should be sent to:

Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Editorial Office
2500 North State Street, Suite N416
Jackson, MS 39216
Telephone: (601) 815-4871
Fax: (601) 815-4770
Email: annallergy@umc.edu

Authors are responsible for all statements, opinions, conclusions, and methods of presenting their data in articles submitted to the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology for possible publication. The views of authors as presented in their articles do not necessarily represent the opinions of the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology editorial staff or the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

The purpose of these instructions is to provide authors with clear and concise guidelines for preparing a manuscript in acceptable Annals style. In general, exceptions to the published guidelines are not made. Authors who believe they have compelling reasons to alter and/or exceed the published guidelines may appeal to the editorial office for a variance PRIOR TO submission. Appeals may be sent to annallergy@umc.edu. Otherwise, manuscripts that do not meet these guidelines will be returned to the corresponding author for revision prior to any further consideration for peer review.

Editorial Policies for Authors

Authorship
It is assumed that a submitted manuscript is the work of the listed authors and represents the effort to generate the manuscript. While outside editorial assistance may be utilized, "ghost written" articles are not accepted for review by the Annals. By submitting a manuscript the authors certify that they have (collectively) personally written at least 90 percent of the manuscript.

Authorship Requirements
In order to be included in the list of authors, an individual must meet all the following requirements approved by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): (1) made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafted the article or reviewed it critically for important intellectual content; (3) given final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work related to its accuracy or integrity.

Changes to Authorship
Any change in authors and/or contributors after initial submission must be discussed and approved in writing by all authors. This applies to additions, deletions, or changes of order to the authors. The Corresponding Author must submit the request to the Annals editorial office and include written permission from each author authorizing the change.

Copyright
The corresponding author will sign on behalf of all co-authors of the manuscript. After Elsevier receives the accepted manuscript, they will send an e-mail to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript and provide a "Journal Publishing Agreement" link to transfer, assign, or otherwise convey all copyright ownership (print and all forms of digital formats) to the Annals.

Acknowledgements
All other persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript (e.g., data collection, analysis, or writing or editing assistance) but who do not fulfill authorship criteria may be named with their specific contributions in the Acknowledgments section.

Role of the Corresponding Author
The corresponding author will serve on behalf of all coauthors as the primary correspondent with the editorial office during the submission and review process. If the manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will receive electronic page proofs from Elsevier, agrees to make only necessary changes and return the corrected page proofs to Elsevier within 48 hours of electronic receipt, even if they have no corrections. In addition, the corresponding author will be listed as the author to contact regarding the manuscript after its publication.

Conflict of Interest
All authors are required to disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. If there are no conflicts of interest, please indicate "Conflicts of interest: none" on the title page.
A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author's institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships that could potentially influence (or bias) the author's decisions, work, or manuscript. Potential conflicts of interest include, but are not limited to, speaker's bureau membership, consultancies, research support and/or stock interest by an author and/or his/her first-degree relatives. Further information on Conflict of Interest can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest.

Funding/Support
All financial support for the research and the work should be clearly and completely identified on the title page. If no support was provided, please indicate "Funding Source: none" on the title page.

Open Access
In addition to publishing subscription content, Annals publishes Open Access Articles which are free to access and reuse by both subscribers and the general public.
During submission, authors can choose to publish Open Access. In this case a fee is payable by the author or research funder to cover the costs associated with publication. For more information on Open Access, please visit: http://www.elsevier.com/journals/annals-of-allergy-asthma-and-immunology/1081-1206/open-access-options.

Subscription
In the case of subscription content, articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through Elsevier's access programs. For more information on accessing content, please visit: http://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals/access.
Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the Annals will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

Duplicate/Previous Publication
Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print / electronic format (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture), or in another language, that the manuscript is not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium, and that its publication is approved by all authors.

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
For all research studies involving animal or human subjects or research material derived from humans, appropriate institutional review board (IRB) review and approval is required and the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e., oral or written) should be stated in the Methods section of the manuscript. In the event an author wishes to include personal information or images of patients, written consent is required and must be retained by author and provided to the Annals upon request. Studies exempted from IRB approval by their respective boards should be so indicated in the Methods section. If no formal ethics committee is available, authors should indicate in the Methods section that procedures followed were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration as revised in 2013 (www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html). When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Such review and approval or waiver should also be described in the Methods sections of the manuscript. Failure to comply with this requirement will result in the manuscript being returned without review.

Clinical Trial Registration
All manuscripts that present therapeutic data involving a pharmaceutical agent (commercial or non-commercial) must be registered with an approved Registry that meets the minimum registration data set as described by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME). The Registry URL and assigned database number should be clearly identified on the title page and will be published at the end of the abstract.
A clinical trial is defined by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org) as any research project that prospectively assigns human participants to an intervention to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a health-related intervention and a health outcome. Health-related interventions are those used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome. Examples include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, educational programs, and quality improvement interventions. Health outcomes are any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events.

Keywords
Keywords are often an unappreciated tool by which authors can self identify the most salient categories and subcategories to capture their research effectively. Keywords are used by abstracting and indexing services; choosing the right ones can increase the chances of your article being found by other researchers. In addition, keywords words help the editors select reviewers. Keywords, up to a maximum of 12, should be listed on the title page and indicated during the submission process.

Language Editing
In today's competitive environment, it is essential that the English language used in your paper is of a high quality. Your research may be critical, but poor English, grammatical, spelling, and other common errors are common causes for delays and initial rejections. If you need English-language support, learn more about Elsevier's English Language editing service by visiting http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageservices/languageediting.

Reproduced Materials
When previously published figures or tables are used, the author must obtain written permission from the copyright holder (usually the publisher) to reproduce the material in print and online. An appropriate credit line should be included in the figure legend or table footnote, and full publication information should be cited in the reference list. Acceptance of the manuscript is conditional upon receipt of permission. Letters of permission must accompany the manuscript at the time of submission. Further information on Permissions can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/about/company-information/policies/copyright/permissions#Permission Guidelines.

Revised Manuscripts
Manuscripts may be returned to authors with request for revision. As with new submissions, revisions must be electronically submitted through the online manuscript submission and peer review system. Follow the instructions in the Author Tutorial (located on the home page) for submitting a revised manuscript. Revised manuscripts must

  1. Be received within one month of the date of the decision letter,
  2. Include a point-by-point response to all reviewer comments, preceded by "Response:", and indicate where changes were made in the manuscript.
  3. Text added to the revised manuscript should be highlighted and underlined in red, while strikethrough formatting should be applied to text that is being deleted. This same formatting principle applies to any revised tables/figures revisions, and
The original text limits (word count, references, tables/figures) are still in effect. If the revision exceeds these limits, it will be the authors' responsibility to fully explain why the revision cannot be edited to comply with the limits. This explanation should be provided in the response to the reviewers. Note: A revised manuscript not returned within one month of the date of the decision letter may automatically be rejected. Any further action will require an entire new submission process. Extensions to this deadline will be provided in extenuating circumstances and requires the prior approval of the Editor-in-Chief.

Editorial Review and Publication

Books for Review
Short reviews of recently published books of central interest to our readers are published by invitation only.
Two complimentary copies should be sent to the Annals Editorial Office located at University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, N416, Jackson, MS 39216. One book is maintained in the editorial office library, while the other is mailed to the Reviewer.

Editorial Notification
Corresponding authors are sent notifications of the receipt of manuscripts and editorial decisions by e-mail. Authors can check the status of their submitted manuscript, during the review process, via the online manuscript submission and peer review system.

Editorial and Peer Review
Manuscripts are initially reviewed by the Annals Editor-in-Chief. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication are declined and returned to the authors. Other manuscripts are assigned to an Associate Editor and sent to expert consultants for peer review.

Editing
Accepted manuscripts are edited in accordance with the AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed. and returned to the corresponding author for approval.

Proofs
Corresponding authors will receive electronic versions of the page proofs for their articles from Elsevier. Authors should make only necessary changes and return the corrected page proofs to Elsevier within 48 hours, even if you have no corrections. If return of page proofs are delayed, the manuscript may at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief be accepted for publication as is. Accurate proofreading and clear marking of corrections are essential for the production of a quality article. NOTE: Careful proofreading is solely your responsibility. We strongly advise you use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of your word processor. Errata are generally not published for this oversight unless the error is significant.

Funding Body Agreements
Elsevier works with institutions and funding bodies to allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies or institutions have a policy on public access to research. Elsevier offers a wide range of publication options for your research to comply with funding policy or institutional mandates. For details about these agreements and arrangements please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

NIH Public Access Policy
As a service to our authors, Elsevier will deposit to PubMed Central (PMC) author manuscripts reporting NIH funded research. Elsevier will send to PMC the final peer-reviewed manuscript, which was accepted for publication and sent to Elsevier's production department, and that reflects any author-agreed changes made in response to peer-review comments. Elsevier will authorize the author manuscript's public access posting 12 months after final publication.

Reprints
The Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology makes available high quality reprints to its authors and the public.

For authors, the Reprint Order Form is sent with the electronic manuscript acknowledgment letter. Please complete the form and send the order form and purchase order or prepayment either by mail or fax to ANAI, Elsevier Philadelphia, Journals Production.

For the public, e-prints and reprints are available through Elsevier Reprints.

Article Types

The Annals publishes original articles, reviews, editorials, letters, correspondence and many other categories of articles. Topics of interest include all subjects that relate to the practice of allergy-immunology. The most frequent published types are described herein.

Original Articles
Original articles should have a structured abstract of no more than 255 words with the following separate headings: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. A maximum of 12 keywords, 60 references, and a combined total of 8 tables and/or figures are allowed. Text should not exceed 4,000 words and should be organized into the following separate headings: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion.

Letters
Letters are the primary means for an author to communicate brief clinical or scientific observations to our readership. Letters should NOT begin with the salutation "To the Editor", are limited to 1,000 words, one figure OR table, and 10 references.

Correspondence
Correspondence are brief opinions about recently published articles in the Annals and other current topics of general interest to our readership. Correspondence may or may not have a response, should begin with the salutation "To the Editor" and are limited to 500 words and 10 references. Figures and tables are not allowed for this category. Correspondence submissions are reviewed in the Editorial Office and do not undergo outside peer review. Correspondence discussing a recently published Annals article will generally be considered only if it is received within 2 months of the article's publication date. Exceptions to this policy must have the approval of the Editor-in-Chief. The previously published article should be cited in the text.

Invited Articles

The following article types require approval by the Editor-in-Chief before invitation. Authors who have an idea for one of these manuscript types are encouraged to submit a brief description to the Editor-in-Chief via email (annallergy@umc.edu). Only those proposals that are approved by the Editor-in-Chief can be submitted and considered for publication. Exceptions to the guidelines for these features (i.e. word count, references, etc.) should be approved by the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission and be noted in the Author Comments section during the submission process.

Review Articles
Review articles address a specific question or issue that is relevant for clinical practice and provide an evidence-based, balanced, patient-oriented review on a focused topic, either clinical or basic science. Because of space limitations, the review is not intended to be exhaustive - it should be directed. These articles should focus on current advancements in the field, and should be based on the latest "cutting-edge" clinical, translational, or basic science. Review Articles should have a structured abstract of no more than 255 words with the following headings: Objective, Data Sources, Study Selections, Results, and Conclusion. A maximum of 12 keywords and 60 references are allowed. Text should not exceed 4,000 words and should be organized into the following sections: Introduction and Conclusion.

Pro-Con Debates
Many clinical issues have conflicting approaches and opinions - both of which are typically evidence-based. This feature is designed to explore both sides of a specific issue which will allow the reader to consider various aspects to develop and improve personal approaches. Pro-Con Debates do not have an abstract, and are subject to peer-review. Each author is allowed up to 1500 words to make one side of the argument; in addition, he/she may include up to 10 references and 1 table or figure. Since topics for debate are by nature controversial, cited references should emphasize recent publications. Unpublished data, including abstracts or "in press" manuscripts, should not be cited. When both manuscripts are acceptable, each author will be sent their opponent's manuscript and given 7 days to submit a rebuttal containing up to 500 words; in addition, you may include up to 5 additional references at that time. New evidence should not be unfolded in the rebuttal. Instead, the rebuttal should consist of counter-arguments to the points advanced by the opponent in his or her primary manuscript. The listing and numbering of references in the rebuttal need to be independent of the initial portion of the manuscript. However, the two sides of the debate and rebuttal will be cited collectively after the Summary. The Annals Editorial Staff will prepare a brief Summary of the salient points to publish simultaneously with the debate.

Perspectives
On occasion, important topics of general interest to the readership are identified that warrant commentary and discussion by a specific expert. The Editor-in-Chief will invite such an expert to offer his/her perspective on a specific topic. There is no structured abstract and the text should not exceed 2,000 words and 20 references.

MOC - CME Review
MOC - CME Review articles offers physicians a process to keep skills and knowledge current in a changing field where vigilance is key to practicing state-of-the-art specialty medical care. These articles are designed to help fulfill the requirements for CME credit required for the maintenance of certification (MOC) program by the American Board of Allergy and Immunology. Text should not exceed 2,000 words and should be organized into the following sections: Clinical Vignette (case presentation, up to 750 words), Introduction (a brief description of the pathophysiology fundamentals to the case, a clinical context of the case in terms of its uniqueness for the literature), and Conclusion (relevance to the practicing clinician including the principles of the case that would impact provider practice behavior). A maximum of 12 keywords and 20 references are allowed, and articles must include 2 "behaviorally" written learning objectives. A minimum of 5 multiple-part questions (with 5 answers each) related to the material must be included, along with a rationale and a maximum of 3 references for each question.

Mechanisms of Disease for the Clinician
Mechanisms of Disease for the Clinician articles are intended to update the readers with specific mechanism-based knowledge that is the basis for understanding the pathophysiology of a specific immune-based disease and/or a basis for understanding the effectiveness of a specific therapy. These manuscripts should provide a brief overview of the current state of clinical knowledge, and then follow with a more in-depth discussion of the current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that are thought to contribute to the disease and/or the basis for a specific therapy. Mechanisms of Disease for the Clinician articles should have a structured abstract of no more than 255 words with the following headings: Objective, Data Sources, Study Selections, Results, and Conclusion and are limited to 4,000 words and 60 references.

Editorials
Guest Editorials are usually solicited to accompany certain special articles, CME review articles, and original articles that are published in the Annals. Text should not exceed 1,000 words and 10 references. Guest Editorials should reference the previously published article in the Annals.

CME Review Articles
CME Review articles are offered as part of a Continuing Medical Education endeavor and are intended to be directed rather than exhaustive reviews of a specific clinical topic. The intent is to synthesize an overview of that topic with reference to the most current literature to allow the reader to better understand for the ultimate goal of changing practice behavior. Text should not exceed 4,000 words and should be organized into the following sections: Introduction and Conclusion. A maximum of 12 keywords and 60 references are allowed, and articles must include 2 "behaviorally" written learning objectives. A minimum of 8 multiple-part questions (with 5 answers each) related to the material must be included, along with a rationale and a maximum of 3 references for each question.

Clinical Perspectives
Clinical Perspective are evidence-based reviews of topics relevant to the practicing allergist/immunologist. Clinical Perspectives are limited to 2,000 words, 20 references, and a combined total of 8 tables and/or figures. Text should be organized into the following sections: Clinical Problem, Strategies and Evidence (to include evaluation and symptomatic versus specific therapy, where available), Areas of Uncertainty, Guidelines, and Conclusions and Recommendations. These articles do not have an abstract.

Clinical Pearls
Clinical Pearls focus on an unusual or unique physical finding, a diagnostic dilemma, or an unexpected clinical outcome. These are NOT classic case reports, rather a specific, point-by-point communication that should provoke further clinical thought by the reader. Clinical Pearls are limited to a maximum of 1,000 words, 10 references, and a combined total of 8 tables and/or figures.

Challenging Clinical Cases
Challenging Clinical Cases consider the step-by-step process of clinical decision making. Cases are presented in stages (in boldface type) to simulate the typical way such information emerges in clinical practice. The author responds (in regular type) as new information is presented, sharing his/her reasoning with the reader. Challenging Clinical Cases are limited to 2,500 words, 20 references, and a combined total of 8 tables and/or figures.

Book Reviews
Short reviews of recently published books of central interest to our readers are published only by invitation from the Editor-in-Chief. Review text should not exceed 250 words and must include the title of the book, the author, publisher and address, edition and year of publication, availability in hard or soft copy, the number of pages, the price and ISBN #. Books for review should be sent to the Annals Editorial Office located at University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, N416, Jackson, MS 39216.

Basic Science for the Clinician
Basic Science for the Clinician reviews focus on a novel basic science research finding or technique. These reviews should be concentrated on providing practicing clinicians an appropriate background on the science involved, followed by an explanation of the findings/techniques and how these findings/techniques may ultimately lead to changes in the clinic. Basic Science for the Clinician reviews should have a structured abstract of no more than 255 words with the following headings: Objective, Data Sources, Study Selections, Results, and Conclusion. Basic Science for the Clinician reviews are limited to 4,000 words and 60 references.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online via the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology online manuscript submission and peer review system. NOTE: Only manuscripts submitted through this medium will be considered for review.

Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements
NOTE: Manuscripts that do not adhere to the following requirements will be returned to the corresponding author before peer review is initiated.

Basic Formatting (Page Setup/Fonts)
Each manuscript component, as described later in this document, should

  1. Be in a standard font such as Times New Roman, Arial, or Courier, size 12,
  2. Be attached as a separate submission item,
  3. Be double-spaced and have a one inch margin on all side, and
  4. Display page numbers in the upper right corner of each page and continuous Line numbers (i.e., 1, 2, 3 etc.) in the left-hand margin of the submission item. Do NOT restart numbering from each page. Line numbering can be added from the File/Page Setup menu of word processing programs and should be continuous throughout the manuscript file, and
  5. Not contain brackets [ ] in the file names.
Article Lengths
Authors must comply with text limits that have been established for each type of article. Articles of excessive length require prior approval from the Editor-in-Chief. Text limit excludes abstracts, acknowledgments, E-supplement material, figures, references or tables. Any variance approved by the Editor-in-Chief should be documented in the Comments section of submission process.

Manuscript Submission items

Submission Items
Each submission must be comprised of the following submission items, unless otherwise specified: a cover letter, title page, manuscript, references, a completed Authorship form for each author, and as appropriate acknowledgments, tables, figures, figure legend, CME Learning Objectives, CME Questions, CME Rationale and References, CME Honorarium form, Letters of Permission, and E-Supplement material. NOTE: Each component should be uploaded as a separate submission item unless otherwise specified.

Cover Letter
All manuscripts must be accompanied by a cover letter which includes the following:

  1. A statement to the editor that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors.
  2. A statement to the editor indicating the requirements for authorship as stated earlier in this document have been met.
  3. A statement to the editor that the authors certify that they have (collectively) personally written at least 90 percent of the manuscript.
  4. A statement to the editor that the manuscript has not been published previously in print/ electronic format or in another language and that the manuscript is not under consideration by another publication or electronic media.
  5. Complete contact information for the corresponding author, including a mailing address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address).
Title Page
The title page should be concise and easy to read and include the following:
  1. A concise title (no more than 15 words).
  2. Each author who meets authorship criteria should be listed, including the Author's full name, abbreviated-highest academic degree, and institutional affiliation.
  3. The name, mailing address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the author responsible for correspondence.
  4. The source of any financial support. If no support was provided, please indicate so on the title page.
  5. The Registry URL and assigned database number for clinical trial registrations.
  6. A word count for the manuscript (excluding abstract, acknowledgments, e-supplement material, figure legends, references and tables).
  7. The number of figures and tables accompanying the manuscript.
  8. If there are more than 5 authors, the contribution of each author must be substantiated on the title page in context of the authorship criteria identified in the Editorial Policies for Authors section of this document.
Manuscript
In order to ensure a double-blind review, it is imperative that author identifying information not be included in the manuscript text. Abstracts, acknowledgments, E-supplement material, figures, references or tables should NOT be included in the manuscript text file. The text of the manuscript should be divided into sections with the following headings in this order, unless otherwise specified in the Article Types section of this document.

Introduction: Provide an overview of the scope and relevance of the study.

Methods: Describe the design (randomized, double-blind, placebo control), subjects, setting (general community, private practice, and hospital), interventions, and main outcome measures. For all research studies involving animal or human subjects or research material derived from humans, appropriate institutional review board (IRB) review and approval is required and should be stated in the Methods section. Studies exempted from IRB approval by their respective boards should also be indicated. For investigations involving human subjects, the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e., oral or written) should also be declared. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Such review and approval or waiver should also be stated in the Methods sections of the manuscript

Results: Describe the experimental data and results as well as the particular statistical significance of the data.

Discussion: Provide and quantify the main outcomes of the study. Identify limitations of the presented data including plausible explanations for discrepancies between the data and the literature, any differences not expected from the initial hypothesis presented in the introduction and a measured description of the conclusions of the study with implications for future research, biological understanding and/or clinical applications.

For guidance regarding grammar, punctuation, and scientific writing see the AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed. New York: Oxford Press; 2007.

Acknowledgements
All other persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript (e.g., data collection, analysis, or writing or editing assistance) but who do not fulfill the authorship criteria may be named with their specific contributions in the Acknowledgments section provided the authors have written permission from each person. In addition, the corresponding author must sign the Acknowledgment statement on the Annals Authorship form.

References
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and format. Refer to the Article Types section of this document as there are a maximum number of references for each category. References should

  1. Be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited in the text.
  2. Be identified with superscript Arabic numerals in text, tables and legends.
  3. Be recorded during the electronic submission process.
  4. Reflect the current state of knowledge being cited. As a rule, the Annals expects citations to be within the last 5 years unless the reference a) represents a seminal article that most would agree has persistent value; b) there is no more recent article that adequately represents the cited statement and/or c) the article represents the initial description of the finding/event being cited. In all instances, the reference list will be subject to review and editing as determined by the peer review process.
  5. Journal names should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus.
  6. All authors up to 6 should be listed; if there are more than 6 authors, list the first 3 followed by "et al."
Example:
  1. Lieberman P, Kemp SF, Oppenheimer J, Lang DM, Bernstein IL, Nicklas RA. The diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis: an updated practice parameter. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115(suppl 2):S483-S523.
  2. Macy E, Bernstein JA, Castells MC, et al. Aspirin challenge and desensitization for aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: a practice paper. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;98:172-174.
Authorship Form(s)
Completed authorship forms are required at the time of submission. Click here to access the Authorship Form. Each author must read and sign statements 1.) Authorship, 2.) Copyright Transfer, and 5.) Conflict of Disclosures. In addition, the corresponding author must sign statements on sections 3.) NIH Funding and (if applicable) section 4.) Acknowledgments. Handwritten or digital signatures are required. NOTE: Authorship Forms must be scanned or filled out electronically and uploaded at the time of submission; faxed forms will not be accepted. Manuscript numbers will be assigned by editorial office.

Tables
Tables should be prepared using Microsoft Word and uploaded in a single document. Tables should

  1. Be numbered in the order in which they are first cited in the text.
  2. Be recorded on the title page and during the electronic submission process.
  3. Have a concise heading (no more than 30 words).
  4. Be comprehensible without reference to the text of the article. Use horizontal lines only at the top and bottom of the table and between column headings and the body of the table. Use no vertical lines.
  5. Abbreviations should be defined in alphabetical order at the bottom of the table, e.g., Abbreviations: CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; OR, odds ratio.
Figures
For best print quality, the Annals and Elsevier recommend figures be submitted in TIFF or EPS format. Elsevier, however, will accept electronic artwork in JPEG, PDF and Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, and PowerPoint) formats. For additional information on submitting graphics, please visit the Elsevier website at http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authors.authors/authorartworkinstructions
Figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and illustrations) should
  1. Be numbered in the order in which they are first cited in the text.
  2. Be recorded on the title page and during the electronic submission process.
  3. Be uploaded as a separate submission item. NOTE: Multiple figures can be uploaded as one file.
  4. Figure legends/captions should NOT be included in the figure file, but uploaded as a separate submission item.
Figure Legend
Figure legends/captions should be prepared using Microsoft Word. Figure Legends should
  1. Have a concise legend/caption (no more than 30 words).
  2. Be uploaded as a single document.
Artwork Quality Check
The Artwork Quality Check (Artwork QC) feature in EES is designed to inform authors whether an uploaded figure file is acceptable for production. At the time of submission, the author must view the Artwork Quality Results. If our automated system warns us that one or more of your figures are not of publication quality, the manuscript will be considered for peer review. If the article, however, is accepted, publication will be contingent upon you providing the editorial office with figures which pass the artwork quality check program.

CME Learning Objectives, Questions, Rationale and References
CME Review articles offered as part of a Continuing Medical Education endeavor require 2 "behaviorally" written learning objectives, a minimum of 5 multiple-part questions, with five answers each, related to the material in the review article, and a maximum of 3 reference(s) for each answer. This document should be formatted as follows and uploaded as a separate submission item type of CME Learning Objectives, Questions & Rationale.

Example:

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Describe the presentation of paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM).
  • Discuss the diagnostic tests that are best used to evaluate a patient with suspected paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM).

Q1. Which of the following is true about paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM)?

A. Response to rescue bronchodilator use
B. Continuous symptoms
C. Obstructive ventilatory impairment on spirometry during acute episodes
D. Can be triggered by specific irritants
E. Hypoxia with acute episodes

Q1 ANS: D. Can be triggered by specific irritants

Rationale:
Paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) presents with symptoms that are often indistinguishable from asthma. Patients with PVFM without asthma typically have symptoms which occur on an intermittent basis, do not report response to asthma therapy including bronchodilator use, have spirometry evaluation without obstructive ventilatory impairment and are without hypoxia. Intrinsic irritants such as laryngopharyngeal reflux, postnasal drip or extrinsic irritants such as chemical exposure can trigger PVFM symptoms.

References:
1. Morris MJ, Christopher KL. Diagnostic criteria for the classification of vocal cord dysfunction. Chest. 2010;138:1213–1223.
2. Forrest LA, Husein T, Husein O. Paradoxical vocal cord motion: classification and treatment. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:844–853.

CME Honorarium Form
Upon publication of a CME or MOC CME Review article, the Annals offers a $1,000.00 honorarium. The form should be uploaded at the time of submission as a separate submission item type of Honorarium Form. Click here to access the CME Honorarium form.

Letter of Permission
If your article contains previously published figures or tables, a letter of permission from the copyright holder should be uploaded at the time of submission.

E-Supplement Material
Authors may submit supporting material to accompany their article for online-only publication when there is insufficient space to include the material in the print article. This material should be important to the understanding and interpretation of the report and the amount of material should be limited. E-Supplement material will undergo editorial and peer review with the main manuscript. If the manuscript is accepted for publication and if the material is approved for publication by the editors, it will be posted online at the time of publication of the article as online extra material provided by the authors. E-Supplement material should be submitted in a single Word document with pages numbered consecutively and uploaded with an E-supplement submission item. Each element included in the material should be cited in the text of the main manuscript (i.e., see eTable) and numbered in order of citation in the text (i.e., eTable 1, eTable 2, eFigure 1, eFigure 2, and eMethods).

Updated January 2013