Guide for Authors

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    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of article
    • Research papers
    • Contact details for submission
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Originality and plagiarism
    • Animal welfare
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Changes to authorship
    • Article transfer service
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language and language services
    • Submission
    • Referees
    PREPARATION
    • NEW SUBMISSIONS
    • References
    • REVISED SUBMISSIONS
    • Language
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Highlights
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Nomenclature and units
    • Database linking
    • Math formulae
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Colour artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Web references
    • Reference style
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Google Maps and KML files
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    Your Paper Your Way
    your paper your way

    Types of article

    Research papers

    Animal Behaviour publishes original papers relating to all aspects of the behaviour of animals, including humans. Papers may be field, laboratory or theoretical studies. Preference is given to studies that are likely to be of interest to the broad readership of the Journal and that test explicit hypotheses rather than being purely descriptive.

    Reviews
    These should address fundamental issues relating to behaviour and provide new insights into the subject(s) they cover. Original interdisciplinary syntheses are especially welcome. Reviews should be no longer than 6000 words (excluding references) and should include an abstract of up to 300 words. In the first instance, a preliminary outline of up to 600 words should be submitted online (see Contact details for submission below). The decision as to whether to proceed to a full review then rests with the Executive Editors or invited advisers. Contributions submitted on this basis will be subjected to the same refereeing process as normal manuscripts.

    Essays
    These should address fundamental issues relating to behaviour and provide new insights into the subject(s) they cover. In contrast to Reviews, Essays provide an opportunity for authors to express opinions, consider the subject area in a historical context and speculate on its future development. Essays should be no longer than 6000 words (excluding references) and should include an abstract of up to 300 words. In the first instance, a preliminary outline of up to 600 words should be submitted online (see Contact details for submission below). The decision as to whether to proceed to a full essay then rests with the Executive Editors or invited advisers. Contributions submitted on this basis will be subjected to the same refereeing process as normal manuscripts.

    Commentaries
    The Commentaries section of the Journal provides an opportunity to raise issues of general importance to the study of behaviour, including statistical analysis, theory, methodology and ethics. Unless there are clearly broader implications for the study of behaviour as a whole, critiques of particular papers or issues of more local interest should be reserved for the Forum section (see below). Decisions as to whether borderline submissions are more appropriate to the Commentaries or Forum section rest with the Executive Editors. Contributions should be brief, normally not more than six printed pages, and should not contain an abstract. Methodological contributions may be longer, and may contain an abstract, subject to the discretion of the Executive Editors. The initial decision as to prima facie merit rests with the Executive Editors or invited advisers. Contributions with prima facie merit are subjected to the same refereeing process as normal manuscripts, but responses or complementary articles may be solicited by the Executive Editors at their discretion. Other contributions are returned unrefereed to the author(s).

    Forum
    The Forum section is published on ScienceDirect with contributions listed in the contents of the relevant hardcopy issue and cited as indicated in References below. The section accepts critiques of published papers relevant to the areas of interest of the Journal, and provides an opportunity for constructive exchanges on issues surrounding particular fields of study. Submission, review and acceptance procedures are as for Commentaries (see above), but there is no word limit. In the case of Forum critiques of published papers, the author(s) of the target article must be contacted and trivial points of difference or misunderstanding resolved; this correspondence must be submitted in a cover letter accompanying the Forum article.

    More general correspondence on matters relating to behavioural research is published, unrefereed, in the newsletters of ASAB and ABS. Such correspondence should be sent to the newsletter editors: Dr. Lisa M. Collins, Queen's University Belfast, Department of Biological Sciences, Medical Biology Centre, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast, UK, e-mail: asabnewslettereditor@gmail.com) for ASAB; Susan M. Bertram, Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada, e-mail: Sue_Bertram@carleton.ca) for ABS.

    Single and double blind peer review
    Animal Behaviour has instituted a double blind peer review process (i.e., where neither the authors' nor the reviewers' identities are known to each other). Reciprocal anonymity is suggested to provide a more objective and potentially less biased assessment of manuscripts, and help ensure that the process is fair to both junior and well-established scientists. The switch to double blind review requires some changes to editorial procedures, and we ask potential authors to pay close attention to our revised submission guidelines. Our policy with respect to reviewers is to allow them to waive anonymity if they wish, and in accord with this, authors may also choose to submit their papers without being blinded, giving both authors and reviewers maximum flexibility in how they wish their work and comments to be assessed. Animal Behaviour is one of the foremost journals in its field, and the implementation of double blind review aims at ensuring our reputation for integrity, fairness and openness to new ideas.

    Contact details for submission

    Authors should submit manuscripts online to http://ees.elsevier.com/anbeh. When submitting online, authors are requested to select the article type (Research paper, Review, Essay, Review/Essay Proposal, Commentary, Forum). Each category of article is further divided into US and UK articles (e.g. US Research paper, UK Research paper, etc.) depending on whether the US or UK Editorial Office is responsible for processing the manuscript. Authors whose current address is in the Americas, or neighbouring islands, or who are members of the Animal Behavior Society should select the US article types and authors in other geographical areas or who are members of the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour should select the UK article types. Hard copies are not required in addition to copies submitted online. Authors who are submitting a manuscript online for the first time should read the Author Tutorial on the submission site. For enquiries relating to submissions via EES, please contact the Journal Manager at Elsevier via e-mail (yanbe@elsevier.com).

    For other general correspondence:
    The address of the UK office is: Dr A.K. Turner, Managing Editor, Animal Behaviour Editorial Office, School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, U.K. (fax: (0) 115 9 513 249, e-mail: angela.turner@nottingham.ac.uk).
    The address of the US office is: Kris Bruner, Managing Editor, Animal Behavior Society Central Office, Indiana University, 402 N. Park Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47408-3828, U.S.A. (fax: 812 856 5542; e-mail: krbruner@indiana.edu).
    Correspondence about book reviews handled through the North American office should be sent to: Dr P. Loesche, Department of Psychology, Box 351525, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, U.S.A. (e-mail: loes@uw.edu).

    Resubmitted manuscripts should also include a detailed explanation of how the author has dealt with each of the reviewers' and Editor's comments. These comments should be uploaded as 'Revision Comments' on EES.

    Ethics in publishing

    Animal Behaviour publishes papers by scientists conducting research at locations around the globe. Publication is, therefore, based upon mutual trust between publisher and authors. Professional integrity in the conduct and reporting of research is an absolute requirement of publication in the journal, as is a willingness to share information with other members of the scientific community. Consequently, as a condition of publication in Animal Behaviour, authors must agree both to honour any reasonable request for materials or methods needed to verify or replicate experiments reported in the journal and to make available, upon request, any data sets upon which published studies are based. Anyone who encounters a persistent refusal to comply with these guidelines, or has reason to suspect some other departure from acceptable standards of scientific conduct, should contact the appropriate Executive Editor (European or American) of the journal. The Executive Editors will act in accordance with the guidelines of the Committee for Publication Ethics (http://www.publicationethics.org) and may inform an author's institution of a purported infraction. Statements on scientific integrity by the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour and Animal Behavior Society can be found at, respectively, http://www.asab.org and http://.animalbehaviorsociety.org.

    Originality and plagiarism

    As noted in Elsevier's publishing and ethical guidelines, authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works. If authors have used the work, data, or words of others or their own earlier publications, please ensure that this has been appropriately cited or quoted. Please also declare such overlaps in the cover letter on submission.
    Plagiarism takes many forms, from 'passing off' another's paper as the author's own paper, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another's paper or indeed one's own earlier paper (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by others. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable. All manuscripts are automatically put through a plagiarism check program and flagged results are evaluated individually.

    For further information on Ethics in Publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication, see also http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/ethicalguidelines.

    Animal welfare

    The research should adhere to the ASAB/ABS Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research (updated in each January issue of the Journal and on the Journal Web site: http://www.elsevier.com/framework_products/promis_misc/ASAB2006.pdf), the legal requirements of the country in which the work was carried out, and all institutional guidelines. The Guide to Ethical Information Required for Animal Behaviour Papers (http://www.elsevier.com/framework_products/promis_misc/ethyanbe.doc) should be consulted and its requirements met. ASAB and ABS endorse the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting experiments using live animals (http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/downloaddoc.asp?id=1206&page=1357&skin=0). Animal Behaviour has exceptionally high standards for animal care for both vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition to the usual requests for permit and agency approval numbers, we would frequently like more information to address concerns that the animals were treated as well as possible given the constraints of the experimental design.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Animal Behaviour will not consider submissions that have been published elsewhere, nor will it republish data found in other publications, unless the data are re-evaluated to provide new information not found in the original. Abstracts that both appear in published conference proceedings with ISBNs or ISSNs, such as special editions of journals, and provide explicit quantitative summaries of the key results, are considered as prior publication. Overlap between submitted manuscripts and published abstracts containing qualitative descriptions of the manuscript will be allowed, provided that such abstracts are not verbatim reproductions of the abstract contained within the submitted manuscript. Include details of all abstracts and other published materials in a cover letter accompanying the submitted manuscript on EES.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Article transfer service

    This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. More information about this can be found here: http://www.elsevier.com/authors/article-transfer-service.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The publication fee for Open Access in this journal is $2,200, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language and language services

    Manuscripts should be written in British English. Authors who are unsure of correct English usage should have their manuscript checked by someone proficient in the language. Manuscripts in which the English is difficult to understand may be returned to the author for revision before scientific review. Papers that are accepted but incorrectly prepared or whose English is poor, may also be subject to delays in the press. After acceptance, the Editorial Offices will edit papers in accordance with the house style and will help authors to communicate effectively.
    Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit http://www.elsevier.com/languagepolishing or our customer support site at http://epsupport.elsevier.com for more information. Please note Elsevier neither endorses nor takes responsibility for any products, goods or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to our Terms & Conditions: http://www.elsevier.com/termsandconditions

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Before submitting online, make sure you have the following details: all authors' names and addresses and their permission to proceed with submission, the details of any licences/permits/institutional approval you had for the study, suggestions for referees and any opposed referees. You will need to upload a cover letter, title page, acknowledgments and manuscript.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/anbeh.

    Referees

    Please submit, with the manuscript, the names and e-mail addresses of 4 potential referees.
    In case of double blind peer review, please make sure that all text that may reveal your identity is excluded from the source files.

    NEW SUBMISSIONS

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
    As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

    References

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

    Formatting requirements
    There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Title page, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Tables, Figure Legends, Figures, and bulleted Highlights summarizing your article. If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes. Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

    Line numbering and double spacing text
    Please ensure the text of your paper is double-spaced and has consecutive line numbering – this is an essential peer review requirement.

    Figures and tables embedded in text
    Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.

    REVISED SUBMISSIONS

    Language

    Please write your text in good English (British usage only is accepted). Use decimal points (not decimal commas); use a space for thousands (10 000 and above).

    Use of word processing software
    Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - unnumbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply "the text".
    The usual main headings for Research papers are: Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments and References (no heading is used for the Abstract or Introduction). Papers should not be forced to fit into this pattern of headings, however, if they do not naturally do so. Type main headings in capitals on a separate line on the left of the page. Type subheadings in italics at the left of the page on a separate line, and begin the main words with a capital letter. Type sub-subheadings in italics on a new line, aligned full left. Start the text on a new line after subheadings and sub-subheadings. When presenting multiple experiments, authors may use main headings for the titles of each experiment, with the Methods and Results of each experiment listed as subheadings. Try to keep subheadings short enough to fit within a single column.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
    The Introduction should be brief, not normally exceeding two manuscript pages. Keep references to a minimum by citing reviews rather than primary research papers where appropriate.

    Methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
    Give the names and addresses of companies providing trademarked products. Always state sample sizes (the number of animals used in the study) and the age, sex, breed/strain and source of animals. Full details of testing or observational regimes should be given. If captive animals were used, include details of housing conditions relevant to the study (e.g. cage size and type, bedding, group size and composition, lighting, temperature, ambient noise conditions, maintenance diets) both during the study and during any period before the study that might bear on the results. The Methods section may also contain a description of the kinds of statistics used and the activities that were recorded.
    Ethical note. Where ethical considerations arise from the study, these should be addressed in the Methods, either in the main Methods section itself (where the additional discussion is relatively minor), or in a separate subsection of the Methods headed Ethical note. Any ethical implications of the experimental design and procedures should be identified, and any licences acquired to carry out the work specified. Procedures that were taken to minimize the welfare impact on subjects, including choice of sample sizes, use of pilot tests and predetermined rules for intervention, should be described. Any steps taken to enhance the welfare of subjects (e.g. through 'environmental enrichment') should also be indicated. If the study involved keeping wild animals in captivity, state for how long the animals were captive and whether, where and how they were returned to the wild at the end of the study.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise. This section should include only results that are relevant to the hypotheses outlined in the Introduction and considered in the Discussion. The text should complement material given in Tables or Figures but should not directly repeat it. Give full details of statistical analysis either in the text or in Tables or Figure legends. Include the type of test, the precise data to which it was applied, the value of the relevant statistic, the sample size and/or degrees of freedom, and the probability level. Number Tables and Figures in the order to which they are referred in the text.
    Means and standard errors/standard deviations (and medians and interquartile ranges/confidence limits), with their associated sample sizes, are given in the format X +SE = 10.20+1.01 g, N = 15, not X = 10.20, SE = 1.01, N = 15.
    For significance tests, give the name of the test followed by a colon, the test statistic and its value, the degrees of freedom or sample size (whichever is the convention for the test) and the P value (note that F values have two degrees of freedom). The different parts of the statistical quotation are separated by a comma. Note use of italics for F, P, N and other variables.
    If the test statistic is conventionally quoted with degrees of freedom, these are presented as a subscript to the test statistic. For example:

    ANOVA: F1,11 = 7.89, P = 0.017
    Kruskal-Wallis test: H11 = 287.8, P = 0.001
    Chi-square test: X22 = 0.19, P = 0.91
    Paired t test: t12 = 1.99, P = 0.07

    If the test is conventionally quoted with the sample size, this should follow the test statistic value. For example:

    Spearman rank correlation: rs = 0.80, N = 11, P < 0.01
    Wilcoxon signed-ranks test: T = 6, N = 14, P < 0.01
    Mann-Whitney U test: U = 74, N1 = N 2 = 17, P < 0.02

    P values for significant outcomes can be quoted as below a threshold significance value (e.g. P < 0.05, 0.01, 0.001), but wherever possible should be quoted as an exact probability value. Departure from a significance threshold of 0.05 should be stated and justified in the Methods. Marginally nonsignificant outcomes can be indicated as exact probability values or as P < 0.1. Nonsignificant outcomes should be indicated with an exact probability value whenever possible, or as NS or P > 0.05, as appropriate for the test.

    State whether a test is one tailed or two tailed (or specific or nonspecific in the case of Meddis' nonparametric ANOVAs). One-tailed (or specific) tests should be used with caution. Their use is justified only when there are strong a priori reasons for predicting the direction of a difference or trend and results in the opposite direction can reasonably be regarded as equivalent to no difference or trend at all. Authors are referred to Kimmel (1957, Psychological Bulletin, 54, 315-353).

    Do not quote decimals with naked points, for example quote 0.01, not .01, or normally to more than three decimal places (the exception being P values for significance tests, which may be quoted to four decimal places where appropriate, e.g. 0.0001).

    Regressions and analyses of variance. The significance of regressions should be tested with F or t but not the correlation coefficient r. R2 should be quoted with both regressions and parametric analyses of variance.

    Multiple range tests. Unplanned multiple range tests following ANOVA should be avoided unless their appropriateness for the comparisons in question is verified explicitly. Authors are referred to the review by Day and Quinn (1989, Ecological Monographs, 59, 433-463).

    Power tests. Where a significance test based on a small sample size yields a nonsignificant result, explicit consideration should be given to the power of the data for accepting the null hypothesis. Authors are referred to Thomas and Juanes (1996, Animal Behaviour, 52, 856-859) and Colegrave and Ruxton (2003, Behavioral Ecology, 14, 446-447) for guidance on the appropriate use of power tests. Providing a value for power based on a priori tests is preferred. Values of observed power are not appropriate. Authors should consider effect sizes and their confidence intervals in drawing conclusions regarding the null hypothesis.

    Transformations. Where data have been transformed for parametric significance tests, the nature of the transformation and the reason for its selection (e.g. log x, x 2, arcsine) should be stated.

    Discussion
    It is often helpful to begin the Discussion with a summary of the main results. The main purpose of the Discussion, however, is to comment on the significance of the results and set them in the context of previous work. The Discussion should be concise and not excessively speculative, and references should be kept to a minimum by citing review articles as much as possible.

    Conclusions
    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, as a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as 1, 2, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: equation (A1), equation (A2), etc.

    Essential title page information

    Title. This should be brief and informative, and should not exceed 120 characters. Avoid abbreviations, as well as part numbers unless the papers are to be published consecutively in the same issue of the Journal.

    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g. a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Affiliations should not include street, box number, postal (zip) code, country (when that is obvious) or city, state, province, etc., when that is redundant with the University name.

    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.

    Correspondence. At the bottom of the page, give the full postal address and e-mail address (if desired) of the corresponding author and the present addresses of any co-authors if different from their affiliations; e-mail addresses of co-authors may also be given.

    Word count. Include a word count for the text.

    Reviews. These should address fundamental issues relating to behaviour and provide new insights into the subject(s) they cover. Original interdisciplinary syntheses are especially welcome. Reviews should be no longer than 6000 words (excluding references) and should include an abstract of up to 300 words. In the first instance, a preliminary outline of up to 600 words should be submitted online (as a Review proposal). The decision as to whether to proceed to a full review then rests with the Executive Editors of invited advisers. Contributions submitted on this basis will be subjected to the same refereeing process as normal manuscripts.

    Essays. These should address fundamental issues relating to behaviour and provide new insights into the subject(s) they cover. In contrast to Reviews, Essays provide an opportunity for authors to express opinions, consider the subject area in a historical context and speculate on its future development. Essays should be no longer than 6000 words (excluding references) and should include an abstract of up to 300 words. In the first instance, a preliminary outline of up to 600 words should be submitted online (as an Essay proposal). The decision as to whether to proceed to a full essay then rests with the Executive Editor or invited advisers. Contributions submitted on this basis will be subjected to the same refereeing process as normal manuscripts.

    Title document
    The title document should contain the title of the article, all affiliations of the corresponding author and co-authors and the corresponding author's address. In case of double blind peer review, this information should not appear in any other file, in order not to yield the authors identity to the reviewer.

    Abstract

    The Abstract should describe the purpose of the study, outline the major findings and state the main conclusions. It should be concise, informative, explicit and intelligible without reference to the text. Abstracts should usually be limited to 300 words. Use both common and scientific names of animals at first mention in the Abstract unless they are given in the title. Avoid using references; if used, give the journal name, volume and page numbers, or the book title and publisher.

    Highlights

    Highlights are mandatory for this journal for research articles, essays, reviews, commentaries and forum articles. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters including spaces and each bullet point should be on a separate line). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide up to 10 keywords, using British spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field at their first mention in the abstract and the main text. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Nomenclature and units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI.

    Database linking

    Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving their readers one-click access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible. Single-letter variables should be italics. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text.

    Footnotes

    Use footnotes only to add information below the body of a Table (using superscript letters or numbers), for probability values in Figures and Tables (using multiple asterisks) and, on the title page, for authors' affiliations (using an asterisk for the corresponding author and superscript letters for authors' affiliations). Superscript numbers may be used for coauthors' e-mail addresses and/or changes of address, and other information such as a deceased author.

    Artwork

    Image manipulation
    While it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or colour balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
    • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
    • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
    TIFF (or JPG): Colour or greyscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (colour or greyscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Colour artwork

    If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures, then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in colour on the Web (e.g. ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for colour in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting colour figures to "greyscale" (for the printed version should you not opt for colour in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the colour illustrations.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively, with Arabic numerals, in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript symbols. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Do not divide tables into two or more parts. Tables should not contain vertical rules, and the main body of the table should not contain horizontal rules. Large tables should be narrow (across the page) and long (down the page) rather than wide and short, so that they can be fitted into the column width of the Journal.

    References

    Citations in the text

    Check that all references in the text are in the reference list and vice versa, that their dates and spellings match, and that complete bibliographical details are given, including page numbers, names of editors, name of publisher and full place of publication if the article is published in a book. References cited in the Abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results are not recommended in the reference list. If these references are included in the reference list, they should follow the standard reference style of the journal. Check foreign language references particularly carefully for accuracy of diacritical marks such as accents and umlauts. For papers in the course of publication, use 'in press' to replace the date and give the journal name in the references.

    Web references

    Because of the ephemeral nature of many Web sites, other Web citations will be reviewed by the Editors to ensure they are appropriate to an archival journal. As a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference management software
    This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.

    Reference formatting
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Reference style

    Text citations: Follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of which may be ordered from http://books.apa.org/books.cfm?id=4200067 or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, U.S.A. or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, U.K.

    For text citations with:
    (a) One or two authors: give each author's surname and the year of publication.
    (b) Three to five authors: give each author's surname and the year of publication at first mention; at subsequent mention, give the first author's surname followed by "et al." and the year of publication.(exception: when two or more sources shorten to the same form (i.e. they have the same primary author but different multiple coauthors), list as many of the coauthors' surnames as needed to distinguish between the sources, followed by a comma and 'et al.': Zuur, Ieno, et al., 2009; Zuur, Walker, et al., 2009).
    (c) Six or more authors: give the first author's surname followed by "et al." and the year of publication (but see exception above).

    Note that 'et al.' is not in italics. Use a comma to separate the author from the date. Use lower-case letters to distinguish between two papers by the same authors in the same year (e.g. Packer, 1979a, 1979b). When two or more primary authors have the same surname, include the primary author's initials in all text citations (A. T. Smith & Ivins, 1987; F. V. Smith & Bird, 1964). List multiple citations in alphabetical, then chronological, order (e.g. Arnold, 1981a, 1981b; Halliday, 1978; Nussey et al., 2011; Sih, in press-a, in press-b; Zuur, Ieno, Walker, Saveliev, & Smith, 2009), using a semicolon to separate each reference. In running text, use 'and' instead of '&' before the final name in a multiple-author citation: 'as described in Smith and Jones (2013)'.

    Reference List:

    References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. For sources with more than six authors, include the surnames and initials of the first six authors, followed by 'et al'. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication "(2012a)". In press sources by the same author(s) must be identified as "(in press-a)","(in press-b)", etc.

    Examples:

    Reference to a periodical:

    Buttelmann, D., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (in press). Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, recognize successful actions, but fail to imitate them. Animal Behaviour. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.07.015

    Robinson, M. H., & Robinson, B. (1970). The stabilimentum of the orb web spider, Argiope argentata: an improbable defense against predators. Canadian Entomologist, 102, 641-645.

    Reference to a book:

    Bailey, N. J. (1981). Statistical methods in biology (2nd ed.). London, U.K.: Unibooks.

    Reference to an article in an edited book:

    Emlen, S. T. (1978). The evolution of cooperative behaviour in birds. In J. R. Krebs, & N. B. Davies (Eds.), Behavioural ecology (pp. 245-281). Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Scientific.

    Ketterson, E. D., Nolan, V., Jr., Casto, J. M., Buerkle, C. A., Clotfelter, E. D., Grindstaff, J. L., et al. (2001). Testosterone, phenotype, and fitness: a research program in evolutionary behavioral endocrinology. In A. Dawson & C. M. Chaturvedi (Eds.), Avian endocrinology (pp.19 - 40). New Delhi, India: Narosa.

    Reference to a thesis:

    Bower, J. L. (2000). Acoustic interactions during naturally occurring territorial conflict in a song sparrow neighborhood (Doctoral dissertation). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

    Brewis, J. M. (1981). The population dynamics and growth of the freshwater crayfish Austvopotamobius pallipes in an aqueduct in Northumbria (Doctoral thesis). Durham, U.K.: Durham University. Retrieved from http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/7546/

    Note that journal titles in the reference list should be written in full.

    For publications in any Latin script language other than English, give the original title and, in brackets, the English translation. Titles of publications in non-Latin scripts should be transliterated. Work accepted for publication but not yet published should be referred to as "in press".
    Cite "personal communications" in the text only. Provide the initials and surname(s) for personal communications and give the date of the personal communication (as exact as possible), separated by a comma (A. Smith, personal communication, 9 September 2013).

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Google Maps and KML files

    KML (Keyhole Markup Language) files (optional): You can enrich your online articles by providing KML or KMZ files which will be visualized using Google maps. The KML or KMZ files can be uploaded in our online submission system. KML is an XML schema for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based Earth browsers. Elsevier will generate Google Maps from the submitted KML files and include these in the article when published online. Submitted KML files will also be available for downloading from your online article on ScienceDirect. For more information see http://www.elsevier.com/googlemaps.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • Manuscript should have continuous line numbers and double spacing
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs in PDF format will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author. Elsevier now sends PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader© version 7 (or higher) available free from http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html.
    Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs. The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/systemreqs. If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).

    Author's discount
    Contributors to Elsevier journals are entitled to a 30% discount on most Elsevier books, if ordered directly from Elsevier.



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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