Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Article Types
    • Point/Counterpoint
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Editorial Policies
    • Ethics of the editorial process
    • Human and nonhuman experimentation
    • Conflict of interest statement
    • Named authors and contributors
    • Changes to authorship
    • Article transfer service
    • Appeals policy
    • Submission
    • Suggested reviewers
    PREPARATION
    • Editing services
    • Use of word processing software
    • Basic Format
    • Use of Statistics and Math Formulae
    • Abbreviations, units, proprietary (brand) names, and symbols
    • Permissions
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract page, including key words/phrases
    • Abbreviations, units, proprietary (brand) names, and symbols
    • Acknowledgment(s)
    • Use of Statistics and Math Formula
    • Artwork
    • Illustration services
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • Supplementary data
    • Manuscript submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Copyright statement
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Subscription
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints and Reprints
    • Disclaimer
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    Article Types

    • Every submission must include a title page with a disclosure statement and a signed statement of authorship. This requirement applies to ALL article types listed in the following section; including letters, replies, mixed media, etc.
    • The editors encourage the supplementary use of multimedia components such as PowerPoint, additional images, or video clips. Color figures and images are free.

    Original Research
    Manuscripts are limited to 3000 words of main text (not counting the title page, abstract, condensation, acknowledgements, references, tables, figures, and legends). Longer submissions will not be considered.

    All authors must meet authorship criteria (see Named Authors and Contributors).

    Research articles must be accompanied by a structured abstract (see “Abstract formats”) of no more than 350 words, accompanied by 3 to 5 alphabetized key words or short phrases for indexing.

    The type(s) of non-human animals or other species used in an investigation must be named in the Title, Abstract, and Materials and Methods sections of the manuscript.

    Each research article is published in 2 formats: 1) in the printed journal: in an abbreviated form, as a snapshot of the article, with 1 figure or table, and 2) in full on the Journal website (AJOG.org), where the article summary also appears. The full length article is the official version and is linked to search engines.

    Authors of research articles are asked, upon initial acceptance, to highlight the most significant content of the article (up to 1000 words) for use in the preparation of an abbreviated version for the print edition. To expedite publication, authors are encouraged to permit a Journal-affiliated medical writer to produce the article summary, which will be submitted to the authors for their review and approval prior to publication. Authors who prefer to produce the abbreviated version themselves will receive guidelines to follow. Author-produced article summaries are subject to editing for length, consistency, and conformity with Journal style.

    The full-length article becomes available online for citation before the print issue containing the summary. Impact Factors and other citation indices are based on the full-length online article.

    Translational Sience
    Translational science is typically presented in the form of an original research manuscript; however, the only type of non-clinical research considered must be translational in nature and contain biological implications for obstetrics and gynecology. Basic science without direct clinical relevance will not be considered; please see Editorial Policies for examples.

    Reports of Major Impact
    Authors who believe their original research article has the potential for affecting clinical practice in a major way or is otherwise of urgent importance may submit the manuscript under this category. The editors, in consultation with experts in the area addressed in the article, will assess the likely impact of the article and notify the authors whether it is being considered for this category or as a regular original research manuscript.

    Articles accepted as Reports of Major Impact are reviewed and published as rapidly as possible. The authors are to follow the format for original research articles and submit the entire article. Once an article has been accepted in this category, the author, in conjunction with the Journal’s science writer, will prepare a 1000-word summary, as for other research papers. Publication of the full manuscript will follow shortly thereafter in its entirety online. As with any article, concern about any potential conflict arising from the timing of publication relative to a presentation at a scientific meeting may be communicated to the editors, who will, at the authors’ request, delay publication until the paper has been presented.

    Reviews
    The full-length article appears both in print and on the Journal website. No article summary is prepared.

    Expert Review
    These invited articles provide concise reviews on a topic in which the author has expertise. The manuscript should be comprehensive and balanced, but not exhaustive. Expert Reviews must be evidence based but may include some expert opinion and recommendations. The goal is to provide a concise update on the state of the art and guidelines for clinical care.

    Expert Reviews are limited to 3500 words of main text (not counting the title page, abstract, condensation, acknowledgments, references, tables, legends, and figures). An unstructured abstract (1 paragraph, no categories) of no more than 350 words and 3 to 5 alphabetized key words or short phrases for indexing must be provided.

    Subheadings to separate and identify sections of text should be unique to the topic; the 4 prescribed subheadings required for research articles do not apply. To prevent such subheadings from occupying many lines on a page, they should be as short as possible, not exceeding approximately 6 words, and preferably 1 to 4 words.

    Systematic Review
    Each article in this category provides a comprehensive and exhaustive systematic review of the literature related to the topic. Systematic reviews may not be combined with other manuscript types.

    Authors must adhere the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines (for guidance see Editorial Policies).

    Systematic Reviews are limited to 5000 words of main text (not counting the title page, abstract, condensation, acknowledgements, references, tables, legends, and figures). Include an unstructured abstract (1 paragraph, no categories) containing no more than 350 words and 3 to 5 alphabetized key words or short phrases for indexing. The abstract should summarize the elements of the review, including objectives, data sources, study eligibility criteria, study appraisal and synthesis methods, results, limitations, conclusions, and implications of key findings.

    Headings in the main text should include Introduction, Objective, Methods for Review, Results, and Comment.

    Clinical Opinion
    A Clinical Opinion paper presents a balanced, evidence-based discussion of a clinical issue pertinent to obstetricians and gynecologists. The paper may address an emerging or controversial topic or bring attention to a topic of increasing clinical significance. Opinions rendered must be based on an interpretation of available evidence.

    Not appropriate for this category: 1) a review of an extensively researched subject. Submit as a Systematic Review. 2) an essay about issues for which minimal data exist, such as certain clinical, ethical, educational, practice, and research issues. Submit as a Viewpoint paper.

    A Clinical Opinion paper is limited to 3000 words of main text (not counting the title page, abstract, condensation, acknowledgments, references, tables, legends, and figures). An unstructured abstract (1 paragraph; no headings) of no more than 350 words and 3 to 5 alphabetized key words or short phrases for indexing must be provided.

    Subheadings to separate and identify sections of the text should be unique to the topic; the 4 prescribed categories required for research articles do not apply. To prevent such subheadings from occupying many lines on a page, they should be as short as possible, not exceeding approximately 6 words and preferably 1 to 4 words.

    The full-length article appears both in print and on the Journal website. Article summaries are not created for Clinical Opinion papers.

    Special Report
    A Special Report is released by a consensus committee, working group, task force, or similar group, or summarizes the findings of an important meeting.

    Include a condensation, an unstructured abstract (1 paragraph, no subheadings) of no more than 350 words, and 3 to 5 alphabetized key words or short phrases for indexing.

    Subheadings to separate and identify sections of the text should be unique to the topic; the 4 prescribed categories required for research articles do not apply. To prevent such subheadings from occupying too many lines on a page, they should be as short as possible, not exceeding approximately 6 words and preferably 1 to 4 words.

    The full-length article appears both in print and on the Journal website. Article summaries are not created for Special Reports.

    Viewpoint
    Viewpoint articles are well-founded, scholarly pieces that address a scientific, ethical, academic, or practice-related topic in women's health. The article should be balanced and based on a critical analysis of the literature. Viewpoint articles are intended to stimulate discussion.

    Viewpoint articles are limited to 1500 words of main text (not counting the title page, condensation, abstract, acknowledgments, references, tables, legends, and figures).

    Include a condensation, an unstructured abstract (1 paragraph, no subheadings) of no more than 350 words, and 3 to 5 alphabetized key words or short phrases for indexing.

    The full-length article appears both in print and on the Journal website. Article summaries are not created for Viewpiont articles.

    Point/Counterpoint

    Point/Counterpoint presents 2 essays of differing views about a controversial issue of interest to AJOG's readers. These articles are generally solicited by the editors, but readers are encouraged to suggest topics for this section.

    Each essay is limited to 1500 words of main text (not counting the title page, condensation, abstract, acknowledgments, references, tables, legends, and figures).

    Include a condensation, an unstructured abstract (1 paragraph, no subheadings) of no more than 350 words, and 3 to 5 alphabetized key words or short phrases for indexing.

    Subheadings to separate and identify sections of the text should be unique to the topic; the 4 prescribed categories required for research articles do not apply. To prevent such subheadings from occupying too many lines on a page, they should be as short as possible, not exceeding approximately 6 words, and preferably 1 to 4 words.

    Authors are encouraged to supply with their manuscripts, for publication, a professional “head shot” of the lead author. This must be a high-resolution digital photograph of at least 300 dpi and not taken from a website or cell phone. Photographs are optional and can only run if the author of each essay supplies a photo.

    The essays appear in full, both in print and on the Journal website. Article summaries are not created for Point/Counterpoint.

    Call to Action
    Call to Action is a topical piece highlighting a problem related to a clinical, research, social, ethical, political, or economic issue pertinent to obstetricians and gynecologists and a suggested solution to that problem. Accordingly, the author must include a suggested corrective action; describing the problem alone is not sufficient.

    Call to Action articles are limited to 2000 words of text (not counting the title page, condensation, abstract, acknowledgements, references, tables, legends, and figures).

    Include a condensation, an unstructured abstract (1 paragraph, no subheadings) of no more than 350 words, and 3 to 5 alphabetized key words or short phrases for indexing. The main text must include: 1) “The Problem:,” a one-sentence statement of the problem being presented; 2) “A Solution:,” a one-sentence summary of the proposed solution; and 3) the presentation.

    The full-length article appears both in print and on the Journal website. Article summaries are not created for Call to Action articles.

    Case Report
    Only case reports that are highly original, have significant implications for clinical practice, and/or provide information that will lead to important future research are considered for publication. Case Reports are published on the Journal website (AJOG.org) only.

    Case Reports are limited to 700 words of main text (not counting the title page, abstract, condensation, acknowledgements, references, tables, legends, and figures). Authors should include: 1) an unstructured abstract (1 paragraph, no categories) of no more than 50 words; 2) 3 to 5 alphabetized key words or short phrases for indexing; 3) a brief introduction; 4) at least 1 case description, labeled either Case Report (if the article discusses only 1 case) or Case 1, Case 2, etc.; and 5) a section headed Comment.

    Within the manuscript, authors must attest to having obtained written consent from the patient(s) on whom the report is based. Documentation must be supplied to the editors upon request.

    Editorials
    Editorials are written or solicited by the editors. Spontaneous submissions are not considered for publication.

    Images in Obstetrics; Images in Gynecology
    An Interesting image of clinical significance, such as a clinical photograph or evidence of a diagnostic test (ultrasound scan, MRI film, slide, photomicrograph, DNA blot, or similar), is accompanied by a case description of no more than 350 words (not counting the title page, acknowledgements, references, tables, legends, and figures). The manuscript must include:

    1. Condensation: a 1-sentence condensation of the paper, consisting of no more than 25 words, to be placed in the Table of Contents.
    2. Case Notes: a brief case presentation (under the heading "Case Notes") with introduction of relevant image(s) accompanied either in text or a figure legend by a short description of each
    3. Comment: a discussion of the clinical relevance of the figure (under the heading "Comment". (Together, the case notes and comment should not exceed 350 words.)
    4. Figure and (if applicable) video legends.

    The full text of the article appears both in print and online. The print version generally includes 1 image. Up to 5 images may be submitted for the online version. If the paper is accepted, the editors will work with the author to choose which image to display in the print. In addition to images, we encourage (for use online) the inclusion of multimedia components such as PowerPoint, additional images, or video clips.

    Surgeon's Corner
    This content provides high-quality instruction or an application of a procedure or part of a procedure, designed to aid the practicing obstetrician or gynecologist in improving care. Surgeon's Corner is published in full online; the abstract and a photo or graphic are published in the print journal.

    The manuscript must include all of the following:

    1. Condensation: a 1-sentence condensation of the paper, consisting of no more than 25 words, to be placed in the Table of Contents.
    2. An unstructured abstract of no more than 300 words that summarizes the clinical situation and surgical solution, explains the figure used in the print edition (see item 4), and refers to the video.
    3. For the online edition: a description of the clinical situation or problem (under the heading: "Problem") followed by your surgical solution (under the heading: "Our solution"), in 600 words or less (not counting the title page, acknowledgement, references, tables, legends, and figures). Lists and bullet points may be used as appropriate. The text should refer to the figures/photos and video (see items 4 and 5). References are optional and are not limited in number.
    4. At least one high-quality photograph (300+ dpi; not taken from a website or cell phone), graphic, or figure, to be published in the print edition; this, plus up to 5 additional photos/figures may be included for the online version.
    5. A video clip or computer graphic not longer than 5 minutes, or a maximum of 50MBs or less per clip, to be published in the online version.
    6. Figure and video legends.

    Sketches
    These articles describe interesting aspects of medical careers, work life, professional or personal development, or moments of insight, transformation, or inspiration related to professional experiences. Sketches are limited to 1000 words of main text, and require a condensation.

    The full-length article appears both in print and on the Journal website. Article summaries are not created for Sketches.

    Mixed Media
    Mixed Media may include photos, graphic art, poems, animation, video, interviews, or other forms of creative expression that portray historical or contemporary topics of interest to obstetricians and gynecologists. Typically, Mixed Media articles are published online only; however, applicable portions may appear in the print edition of the Journal. Provide a title suitable for the table of contents.

    Authors are encouraged to supply with their manuscripts, for publication, a professional “head shot” of the lead author. This must be a high-resolution digital photograph of at least 300 dpi and not taken from a website or cell phone. Photographs are optional.

    Letters to the Editors, Replies, and Research Letters
    Every Letter to the Editors, Reply, and Research Letter must include a title page, conflict of interest disclosure, and a Statement of Authorship signed by all authors. These submissions are subject to minor editorial alterations, may be shortened without the authors' approval, and published both in print and on the Journal website.

    Per ACOG/SMFM standard practice, letters related to these joint society guidelines are not published. As ACOG and SMFM are interested in feedback, AJOG will forward letters related to guideline articles to the committee and they will reply personally. Please see Clinical Opinion as a venue for presenting a scholarly, evidence-based point of view about controversial issues in OB/GYN.

    Letters to the Editors and Replies
    Selected Letters to the Editors that cite at least 1 article published in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology within the previous 4 issues are considered for publication.

    Letters to the Editors are limited to 3 authors, 400 words (not counting the title page or references), and 1 to 4 references. At least one of the references must cite the related Journal article(s). All data presented must be fully citable and cited in the supporting reference list.

    The editors routinely invite the author(s) of the related article to respond in writing. Published letters are accompanied by either a reply from the original authors or the statement "Reply declined."

    Research Letters
    Research Letters, not linked to items published in AJOG, briefly summarize the results of original data. Each Research Letter is considered a scientific publication; authors must meet all requirements regarding responsible conduct of research (eg, appropriate IRB approval, data integrity, data retention). Most undergo external peer review. Case reports, reviews, and opinion pieces are not considered for publication under this category.

    Research Letters are limited to 7 authors, 500 words (not counting the title page, references, or legend), 5 references and may include either 1 table or 1 figure. Online supplementary materials are not permitted. Research Letters should be formatted similar to the structured abstract guidelines for original research and divided into 4 sections: Objective, Study Design, Results, and Conclusion. Research Letters do not include an abstract or condensation.

    Editorial Policies

    Queries about submission requirements may be addressed to either of the managing editors:

    Sandra Perrine • perrine@ajog.phxcoxmail.com
    Phone 480-812-9261 • Fax 480-812-9409
    Donna L. Stroud • ajog@rrohio.com
    Phone 614-527-3820 • Fax 614-527-3821

    Ethics of the editorial process

    A policy of the Journal entitled “Specific Inappropriate Acts in the Publication Process” (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194:18A-23A) describes the Journal’s policies regarding ethical practices, which apply to all submitted articles, whether accepted for publication or not. Authors must review this document prior to submission.

    Noncompliance with any of the provisions of this policy may lead to an investigation and an editorial judgment. Besides describing issues such as plagiarism and falsification of data, the document named above contains information regarding duplicate publication of which all prospective authors must be aware.

    If a report by any or all of the same author(s) has previously been published or is currently under preparation that deals with the same subjects, animals, or laboratory experiments, and deals with a similar subject as the submitted manuscript, the author(s) are to inform the editors in a cover letter about the similarities and differences of the reports. The editors may request that you upload such reports before further review. This requirement also applies to manuscripts in which subjects, animals, laboratory experiments, or data have been added to those reported previously. Please ensure that the final manuscript includes references for pertinent articles published prior to the publication of the AJOG paper.

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    All submissions are subject to review with iThenticate Professional Plagiarism Prevention. http://www.ithenticate.com.

    Human and nonhuman experimentation

    Authors must follow the ethical standards for human experimentation established in the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. JAMA 1997;277:925-6). The editors assume that a manuscript emanating from an institution is submitted with the approval of the requisite authority. The authors of reports of human experimentation that require local institutional approval must have obtained this approval before the experiment was started; upon request of the Journal editors, the author(s) must provide copies of the appropriate documentation. Institutional approval must be indicated in the Materials and Methods section of the submitted manuscript. If the study is exempt from Institutional Review Board approval, an explanation must be provided under Materials and Methods.

    For reports of experiments on nonhuman animals or other species, authors must state under materials and methods that the guidelines for the care and use of the animals approved by the local institution were followed. The type(s) of nonhuman animals or other species used in an investigation must be named in the title, abstract, key words, and materials and methods sections of the manuscript.

    For a Case Report, Images in Ob/Gyn, Surgeon’s Corner, or similar report authors must have obtained written permission from the patient(s) on whom the report is based. Authors must attest to having obtained written consent in the manuscript and must be prepared to provide this documentation upon the editors’ request.

    Studies on patients, patient records, or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, both of which must be documented in the paper.

    Trial and research guidelines
    Authors must adhere to the following guidelines when formulating the study.

    Randomized controlled trial.
    - All Randomized Clinical Trials require registration with clinicaltrials.gov (or other registered authority), prior to enrollment. Both the registration site and registration number must appear on the manuscript title page.

    - Authors are to consult the updated CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT Statement): Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D, CONSORT Group (2010). CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. PLoS Med 7(3): e1000251. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000251. http://www.consort-statement.org A flowchart as a figure must be submitted with the manuscript.

    Systematic review or metaanalysis. Authors are to consult the PRISMA Statement: Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, and the PRISMA Group. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:264-9. http://www.prisma-statement.org

    Metaanalysis or systematic review of observational studies. Authors are to consult the MOOSE Statement: Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, et al, for the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [MOOSE] group. Metaanalysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. JAMA 2000;283:2008-12. http://www.consort-statement.org/resources/downloads/other-instruments

    Diagnostic test(s). Authors are to consult STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD Statement): Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, et al, for the STARD Group. Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD Initiative. Clin Chem 2003;49:1-6. http://www.stard-statement.org

    Observational study in epidemiology. Authors are to consult the STROBE Statement: von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP; STROBE Initiative. The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. J Clin Epidemiol 2008;61:344-9. http://www.strobe-statement.org or PLoS Med. 2007 Oct 16;4(10):e296. PMID: 17941714

    Health economics. In addition to the general instructions for authors and other guidelines applicable to the study reported in a submitted manuscript (eg, CONSORT guidelines for a randomized controlled trial; see above), authors of health economics manuscripts should consider certain issues specific to such studies and address them in the manuscript and/or submission letter. The checklist specific to this topic must be completed and included with the general submission checklist. http://cdn.elsevier.com/promis_misc/ajoghealth.pdf

    Translational Science
    The only type of non-clinical research considered must be translational in nature and contain biological implications for obstetrics and gynecology. Additionally, the direct clinical relevance of every submission is considered when an editorial decision is made. Basic science without direct clinical relevance will not be considered.

    As many definitions of basic and translational science abound, please see the following translational science examples to assist you in differentiating study types. If uncertain, authors may email an abstract to either editorial office with an inquiry as to whether or not the submission is encouraged; however, this does not guarantee acceptance.

    Translational science examples

    1. Ectopic Pregnancy
      • Clinical Study: an observational cohort study which shows that patients with a subnormal increase in hCG maternal serum concentration are at increased risk for ectopic pregnancy. [Encouraged submission]
      • Translational Science (bench to bedside): proteomic analysis of maternal plasma shows differentially-expressed proteins in patients with ectopic vs. normal pregnancy. Or, an experiment in which the fallopian tubes are ligated in pregnant animals and hCG determinations are measured in maternal serum. [Encouraged submission]
        Translational Science (bedside to community): analysis of techniques to enhance the adoption of best practices in caring for women with ectopic pregnancy [Encouraged submission]
      • Basic Science: a description of the glycosylation of protein structure of hCG (even if it is based on the purification of hCG from patients with ectopic pregnancies). [DISCOURAGED submission]

    2. Preterm birth
      • Clinical Study: an observational study in which a particular biomarker measured in the mid-trimester increases or decreases the risk for spontaneous preterm labor and delivery. [Encouraged submission]
      • Translational Science: the transcriptome, proteome, genome, or metabolome of patients who subsequently have spontaneous preterm labor and delivery. [Encouraged submission]
      • Basic Science: protein sequence of a particular biomarker. [DISCOURAGED submission]

    Conflict of interest statement

    Authors of all submissions must include a conflict of interest statement.

    Disclosures must include any financial interest present within the past three years with commercial entities that are marketing or developing products (drugs, devices, diagnostic tools, etc.) related to the subject matter of the manuscript. Disclosures include, but are not limited to: stocks or shares, equity, employment, advisory or scientific board, grant funding, speaker's bureau, paid travel, consulting status, and honoraria. The monetary value of any such stock holdings should be named. No policy could cover every contingency that might be construed as a conflict of interest. Therefore, it is expected that should any potential conflict of interest exist, the authors have revealed this to the editors. All relevant conflicts of interest and sources of funding should be included on the title page of the manuscript at the time of submission under the headings "Conflicts of Interest" and "Source of Funding" which will be published with the article. If the authors report no conflict, a statement of this will be published with the article. Failure to report disclosures may result in sanctions. Use as much or as little detail as appropriate.

    Examples:

    - The authors report no conflict of interest.
    - R.J.X, M.F., and L.Y.V.R. are employed by the Curette Company, Worthingham, MI. The remaining authors report no conflict of interest.
    - R.H. received research funding from PharmaCo, San Antonio, TX, for participating in a multicenter drug trial in 2011-12 S.B. reports no conflict of interest.
    - This research was funded, in part, by a grant from the OxyContin Association (A.R.Z.)
    - A.E.B. was on the Speaker's Bureau for PharmaCo in 2012.

    Manuscripts written or developed by anyone other than the listed authors should name those individuals in the Acknowledgment(s) section and state their relationship to any commercial enterprise.

    Named authors and contributors

    Every author must provide a signed Statement of Authorship form upon submission. This requirement applies to all article types including, but not limited to: editorials, mixed media, sketches, letters, and replies.

    Authorship requirements for submissions to the Journal must conform to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. http://www.icmje.org and http://www.icmje.org/urm_full.pdf.

    Each author named in the byline must qualify by having participated actively and sufficiently in the study reported. The basis for inclusion consists of 2 factors: 1) substantial contributions to (a) the concept and design or analysis and interpretation of data and (b) the author’s having drafted the manuscript or revised it critically for important intellectual content; and 2) approval by each author of the version of the manuscript submitted. All conditions (1a, 1b, and 2) must be met. Others contributing substantively to the work, including participants in collaborative trials and persons involved solely in data collection, should be recognized separately in the Acknowledgment(s) section. The corresponding author must confirm that all bylined authors fulfilled all conditions described here.

    Journal policy does not permit the inclusion of co-first authors having contributed equally.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and require an erratum.

    Article transfer service

    This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. More information about this can be found here: http://www.elsevier.com/authors/article-transfer-service.

    Appeals policy

    An author may appeal an editorial decision within 30 days of receipt of the decision to decline a manuscript for publication. The editor's decision may be appealed only if the decision to decline involved a serious mistake, and not merely a judgment call that could have gone either way. Only one appeal is permitted per manuscript, and decisions on appeals are final. New submissions take precedence for the editors over appeals. The basis for an appeal must be set forth clearly and fully in writing to the Editor by the corresponding author.

    Please contact one of the managing editors who will forward the written appeal to the Editor. In your appeal letter, state why you think the decision is mistaken and provide your specific responses to any of the reviewers' comments that seem to have contributed to the decision of ‘decline to publish’.

    Submission

    Authors must submit all elements of their manuscripts online at http://ees.elsevier.com/ajog. The online system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.Authors must submit all elements of their manuscripts online at http://ees.elsevier.com/ajog. Hard-copy submissions will NOT be considered or returned. The online system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision takes place via email.

    A completed Manuscript Submission Checklist
    and Statement of Authorship signed by all authors must accompany all submissions.

    All policies of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, including those related to Conflicts of Interest, Inappropriate Acts, and IRB approval, apply to all submitted articles, including those whose results were presented at professional society meetings.

    Submitted manuscripts are screened by Journal staff and editors. For some papers, a decision is made to decline immediately. All others undergo peer review.

    Manuscript Submission Checklist
    You are not required to submit the checklist but must follow its instructions. The checklist distills many key parts of the Guide for Authors. Incomplete submissions will not be considered.

    Statement of Authorship
    Every author on ALL submissions must sign a Statement of Authorship.

    Suggested reviewers

    Required for all submission types except editorials, letters to the editors, and replies.
    Upon submission, authors are required to provide the names, institution, and email addresses of 2-3 potential reviewers for editorial consideration. Suggested reviewers may include anyone knowledgeable in the area of study presented. Reviewers should not be mentors or former colleagues, and ideally should not be in the same city as the author (unless there is no person with the needed expertise outside of this city).

    Previous submission (unpublished)
    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Provide a copy of previous peer review comments and a detailed response to each point. This is required for any submission previously submitted to AJOG, optional if previously submitted elsewhere.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/ajog.

    Requirements for the preparation of manuscripts
    The author(s) accept(s) responsibility that the electronic file is complete and accurate upon submission, revision, and acceptance.

    Editing services

    AJOG publishes manuscripts only in American English. This includes using US spelling, punctuation, quotation marks, and decimal points. AJOG editors strongly encourage contributors whose English is not excellent to have their manuscripts edited by a professional translator or native English speaker before submission. Elsevier offers authors two services to help prepare their manuscripts for submission to an English-language journal.

    The first service edits your manuscript already written in English to ensure it is in correct scientific English. This process does not change the content of your manuscript but improves understanding and readability for an English-speaking reader. This process takes less than six business days and the cost of an average manuscript is less than $400. Please visit http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/pages/howdoesitwork.html for more details and to upload your manuscript.

    The second service translates your manuscript from your language (Chinese, Portuguese or Spanish) into either British or American English. This process is carried out by Language experts within your field, and takes less than 11 business days. The average cost is $1,000. Please visit http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageservices/translationservices/pages/howdoesitwork.html for more details and to upload your manuscript.

    Please note that these services are not mandatory for publication in an Elsevier journal. Using these services does not guarantee selection for peer review or acceptance, and you are not obligated to submit your edited manuscript to an Elsevier journal. Visit our customer support site.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.

    Basic Format

    Requirements for manuscripts submitted to the Journal generally conform to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org).

    Manuscripts must be submitted in American English, double spaced, with a font size no smaller than 12. Number pages consecutively in the upper right corner in the following order: title page, condensation and short version of title, abstract, main text, acknowledgments, references, tables, and figure legends.

    IMPORTANT: Figures are to be uploaded individually and in separate files (one figure per file). DO NOT embed the figure into the manuscript file, as this compromises the image quality (see artwork).

    Use of Statistics and Math Formulae

    In describing the statistical analyses performed, state which tests were used to evaluate a specific data set. In tables, indicate which statistical test(s) were used to evaluate the data.

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, eg, X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Abbreviations, units, proprietary (brand) names, and symbols

    Use only standard abbreviations. Do not use abbreviations in the title or in the abstract. In the text they should be kept to a practical minimum. The full word or phrase for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text, with the abbreviation following in parentheses, unless it is a conventional standard unit of measurement.

    The use of conventional units of measure is recommended, followed by Système International d'Unités (SI) units in parentheses. For this and other issues of style, authors are advised to consult the current AMA style manual: Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al. AMA manual of style: a guide for authors and editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.

    Generic, chemical, and/or proprietary names of drugs may be used. When a generic or chemical name is used, authors may insert the proprietary name in parentheses after the drug's first mention in the text (optional). When a proprietary drug name is used, it should be followed parenthetically (at first mention only) by the full name of the manufacturer and the city and state (US) or the city, province (if appropriate), and non-US country in which its main headquarters are located.

    Do not insert in any part of the paper the symbol for copyright (©), registered trademark (®), or trademark (TM); if included, they will be removed before publication.

    Permissions

    Direct quotations, tables, figures, and any other material that has previously appeared in copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright owner and original author(s) along with complete reference information. Photographs of identifiable persons either must be accompanied by signed releases or all recognizable features must be masked.

    Article structure

    The editors recommend that Research articles be organized into sections identified with the following headings (not applicable to Expert Review, Systematic Review, or Clinical Opinion, or other article types.

    Text

    Introduction
    State concisely the study’s purpose and rationale. Present only the background, supported by a limited number of pertinent references necessary for the reader to understand why the study was conducted. Do not include study data or conclusions.

    Materials and Methods
    Describe briefly, but in sufficient detail to permit others to replicate the study, its plan, patients, experimental animals or other species, materials, and controls; methods and procedures; and statistical method(s) employed. Institutional Review Board (IRB) issues are to be addressed here as stated under “Human and nonhuman experimentation” in the Editorial Policies section above. If the study was exempt from IRB approval, provide an explanation in the Materials and Methods section of the paper.

    Results
    This section includes detailed findings and must cite, in numerical order, all tables and/or figures, which should supplement, not reiterate, the text. Emphasize only the most important observations. Reserve any comparisons with others’ observations for the Comment section (see below).

    Comment
    Do not repeat the details of data presented under Results or present any new data here. The editors strongly advise the following structure:

    • A brief statement of the principal findings, limiting claims to those strictly supported by the data, avoiding speculation and overgeneralization. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit.
    • Strengths and weaknesses of the study, both intrinsically and in relation to other studies, particularly any differences in results.
    • The meaning of the study; eg, hypothesized mechanisms that might explain the outcomes observed and/or the implications for clinicians or policy makers. Indicate whether additional research is required before the information can be confidently used in clinical settings.
    • Unanswered questions; proposals for future research.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Essential title page information

    The type(s) of non-human animals or other species used in an investigation must be named in the Title, Abstract, and Materials and Methods sections of the manuscript.

    Title page (starting on page 1) – required for ALL article types, including: letters, replies, and online-only content – includes the following sequence:

    1) Title (as concise as possible, approximately 12 words, without abbreviations or parenthetical abbreviations for terms used in the title, and suitable for indexing purposes) Proprietary (brand names) and conclusion statements are NOT permitted in the manuscript title

    2) List of authors to be credited (byline), including each author’s first name, middle initial, and LAST NAME (surname in all capital letters), with highest academic degrees (honorary degrees are not permitted); city or cities, state(s), province (Canada and Australia), and country or countries other than the United States in which the study was conducted; divisional and/or departmental and institutional affiliations of each author at the time the study was performed; for authors not called “Doctor,” indicate Ms. or Mr.

    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a ‘Present address’ (or ‘Permanent address’) may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    3) Disclosure statement of any potential of interest for each author; if no conflict exists; include the statement “The author(s) report(s) no conflict of interest.”

    4) Any source(s) of financial support for the research

    Role of the funding source. You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    5) Required for clinical trials – include the clinical trial identification number and the URL of the registration site

    6) Paper presentation information: if the findings were presented at a meeting, include the name of the meeting and its number (eg, “the 24th Annual Scientific Meeting” or “the 12th annual meeting”), the organization presenting the meeting, the city and state or city and non-US country (for Canada and Australia, include the province) in which the meeting was held, and the month, inclusive dates (not only the date on which the specific presentation was made), and year of the meeting

    7) Disclaimer, if appropriate, such as for authors employed by the Federal Government or Armed Forces

    8) The name of the individual responsible for reprint requests, along with his/her contact information: full mailing address, email address, or both; if reprints will not be available, state: “Reprints will not be available.”

    9) The corresponding author's contact information (who will handle correspondence at all stages of submission, publication, and post-publication). Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author. Include the full name, address, work and home and/or cell phone numbers (indicating which is which), fax number, and email address.

    Word count
    The word count of both the abstract and the main text (not counting the title page, condensation, acknowledgements, references, tables, figure legends, and figures) must be included at the bottom of the title page.

    Condensation and short version of title
    On the next page of the manuscript, supply:

    • a 1-sentence condensation of the paper, consisting of no more than 25 words, stating its essential point(s); this sentence, which is subject to copy editing in conformance with Journal style, will appear in the Table of Contents, and
    • a short version of the article title, for the identification line inserted at the bottom of each published table and figure.

    Abstract page, including key words/phrases

    On the next page of the manuscript, provide an abstract (see below) and 3 to 5 alphabetized key words or short phrases for indexing.

    Abbreviations are NOT permitted in the abstract (structured nor unstructured).

    Structured Abstract – applies to Original Research and Reports of Major Impact

    Limited to no more than 350 words with the following headings:

    1. Objective(s): the purpose of the study (hypothesis being tested)
    2. Study Design: the setting for the study, subjects (number and type), treatment or intervention, and type(s) of statistical analysis used
    3. Results: the outcome(s) of the study and, if appropriate, their statistical significance
    4. Conclusion(s): overall significance of the results
    Unstructured Abstract – applies to all other article types unless noted under Article Types

    (1 paragraph, without headings or categories). Case report abstracts are limited to no more than 50 words. Clinical Opinion, Expert, or Systematic Review may include 50 to 350 words.

    Abbreviations, units, proprietary (brand) names, and symbols

    Use only standard abbreviations. Do not use abbreviations in the title or in the abstract. In the text they should be kept to a practical minimum. The full word or phrase for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text, with the abbreviation following in parentheses, unless it is a conventional standard unit of measurement. The use of conventional units of measure is recommended, followed by Système International d'Unités (SI) units in parentheses. For this and other issues of style, authors are advised to consult the current AMA style manual: Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al. AMA manual of style: a guide for authors and editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.

    Acknowledgment(s)

    This section thanks those other than the authors who have made substantive contributions to the manuscript, including participants in collaborative trials and persons providing only data collection or assistance with preparing the paper for submission or publication. Name only those who have made substantive contributions to the study (see “Editorial Policies”).

    For each person named under Acknowledgments, including science writers, the following information must be provided: name, place of employment, funding source(s), and disclosure of source of compensation, whether financial or in the form of services or complimentary products. All individuals named in this section must consent to such acknowledgment.

    Use of Statistics and Math Formula

    In describing the statistical analyses performed, state which tests were used to evaluate a specific data set. In tables, indicate which statistical test(s) were used to evaluate the data.

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, eg, X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Figures, videos, and computer graphics
    Submit figures online, each as a separate image file (ie, *.tif,*.bmp, *.jpeg), not embedded in the manuscript document or in a slide presentation. Cite figures sequentially, as they appear in the text, with Arabic numbers (Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3A, etc).

    Assign to each figure a brief title (containing as few words as possible and reserving abbreviations for the legend). For further explanation and examples of artwork preparation, see artwork instructions to authors from AJOG’s publisher at http://www.elsevier.com/artwork (click on “Artwork and Multimedia Instructions Interactive PDF”). Number all figures in the order in which they appear in the text, with Arabic numerals (Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3A, etc.).

    Videos and computer graphics

    Authors are encouraged to submit videos and computer-generated graphics; eg, a slide presentation with or without animation and sound. Although the publisher will not edit any video or computer graphic, the editors and reviewers may suggest changes. Any patient identification must be removed or masked.

    The maximum length of a video or computer graphic is 50 MBs or less per clip. Longer submissions may be divided into smaller clips, each of which should be identified at the beginning of that section; eg, Video Clip 1, Graphic 1. A concise legend for each video clip or computer graphic presentation must be included with the manuscript. Videos are to be submitted in MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 (*.mpg) or QuickTime (*.mov) format. Videos must be compatible with Windows Media Player. Detailed instructions can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/artwork (click on “Artwork and Multimedia Instructions Interactive PDF”). Videos and computer graphics accompanying a manuscript that is declined for publication will not be accepted separately. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the presentation will be archived at http://www.AJOG.org.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. An invitation to create a presentation will be sent at the time of final acceptance. Authors are directed to a website wehere they can upload slides and record audio. AudioSlides should not be submited with the manuscript. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Illustration services

    Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/illustrationservices) offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Figure legends
    On the final page of the manuscript supply the following for each figure:
    The figure number, figure title, and a 1- or 2-sentence description (legend, caption). Explain any arrowhead, letter, or other symbol used to identify parts of a photograph, drawing, or other illustration. Spell out any abbreviations used. In photomicrographs, explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining, if appropriate. If a figure was previously published by any of the bylined authors or others, insert a statement that permission has been granted and by whom, as well as a full citation of the original publication.

    Tables

    Submit tables in the manuscript file at the conclusion of the reference list and before the figure legends. Create all tables as double-spaced text in Microsoft Word. Any table submitted as an Excel spreadsheet, *.jpg file, or *.tif file will be returned for replacement.

    Identify each table with a brief title (as few words as possible; reserve abbreviations for the key) and with an Arabic number (Table 1, Table, 2, etc.) in the order in which it is cited in the text. Each column, including the first, must have a heading. Put all explanatory matter in footnotes, including the spelling out of any nonstandard abbreviations used in the table.

    For footnote symbols within tables, follow the style and order noted on pages 90-95 of the AMA style guide, 10th edition. For placement, start in the upper left corner and work across, left to right, and down, line by line.

    If a table, in whole or in part, was derived from copyrighted material, a footnote at the bottom of the table must credit the original source, cited fully. Any copyrighted material must be accompanied by a letter or completed permission form at the time of manuscript submission.

    References

    Follow the format in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. http://www.icmje.org Standard journal title abbreviations are available in the List of Serials Indexed for Online Users from the National Library of Medicine. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/terms_cond.html

    Published abstracts may not be cited; citing the complete published article is preferred.

    Websites may or may not be appropriate sources for citation; eg, websites that serve as repositories of genetic information maintained by NIH, NCI, and the National Library of Medicine are acceptable.

    Provisional patent applications may not be cited as references.

    Personal communications may not be included in the reference list, but may be inserted at the appropriate place in the text followed by the reference information in parentheses.

    Numbering and order
    All references are to be numbered sequentially as they fall in the text. For references that are not cited in the main text but only within table(s) or figure(s), begin such numbering after the numbers in the main reference list.

    Insert citations in Arabic numerals as superscripts, not in parentheses. If the reference follows a comma or falls at the end of a sentence, the superscript should follow the comma or the period.

    Do not include the first author of the cited reference in the text, in parentheses or otherwise, except as part of the text itself (Smith et al found…. or In a study by Smith et al, ....).

    Key in all reference numbers in the text, figure legends, tables, and reference list. Do not use automatic reference-numbering software.

    If any reference is repeated or out of order, the author is responsible for renumbering references as needed prior to submission or resubmission. If any reference(s) are added or deleted during editing, the author is responsible for renumbering all subsequent references, both in citations within the text (and tables and figures) and, correspondingly, in the reference list. For any citations used in tables or figure legends, renumbering should similarly be done there.

    Reference style
    In general, follow AMA style. For examples, see any recent issue of the Journal.

    For up to 6 authors, list all; for 7 or more authors, list the first 3 + et al.

    Journal article
    Nageotte MP, Vander Wal B. Achievement of the 30-minute standard in obstetrics—can it be done? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012;206:104-7.

    Book chapter or section
    Kim M. Amenorrhea: primary and secondary. In: Zuspan FP, Quilligan ED, eds. Handbook of obstetrics, gynecology, and primary care. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1998:3-10.

    Personal communications; unpublished data
    If essential, these may be cited, within parentheses, at an appropriate location in the text, but not as numbered references. Written, signed permission from individual(s) quoted must accompany the manuscript upon submission.

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference style
    Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
    Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones [8] obtained a different result ....'
    List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    [1] J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    [2] W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    [3] G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Manuscript submission checklist

    The manuscript submission checklist must be completed in full by the author(s) and uploaded with the submitted manuscript. No submission will be considered without a completed checklist. If an item does not apply, leave the box unchecked.

    Manuscript Submission Checklist

    Copyright statement

    The publisher will request a signed copyright statement after final acceptance of a manuscript. However, a signed Statement of Authorship signed by all authors is required at the time of submission.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder

    To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access. Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The publication fee for this journal is $3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Subscription

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    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
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    Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

    To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints and Reprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints/myarticlesservices/booklets).

    Reprints
    The corresponding author of each accepted article will receive information about ordering reprints as the article is prepared for publication.

    Disclaimer

    Statements and opinions published in articles and communications therein are held to be those of the author(s) and not necessarily of the editors or publisher of the Journal. The editors and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material. Neither the editors nor the publisher guarantees, warrants, or endorses any product or service advertised in the Journal or guarantees any claim made by the manufacturer of such a product or service.



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