Guide for Authors

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    • Research articles - Quantitative and Qualitative Research
    • Brief Reports
    • Articles on Educational Research
    • View from the Association of Pediatric Program Directors (APPD)
    • Perspectives
    • Systematic Reviews
    • Narrative Reviews
    • Supplements
    • In The Moment - Personal Narratives
    • Commentaries
    • Cover Letter
    • Formatting
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Authorship
    • Authorship
    • Authorship Criteria
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    PREPARATION
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • What's New
    • Manuscript Text
    • Human Subjects
    • Funding
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Artwork
    • References
    • Video data
    • Supplementary data
    • Specific Requirements for Systematic Reviews
    • Submission checklist
    • Submitting a Manuscript
    • Manuscript Review Process
    • Acceptance Criteria
    • Inquiries Regarding Decisions
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES


    Academic Pediatrics strives to improve the health and wellbeing of children, their families, and their communities through:

    •Providing a forum for the publication of general pediatric studies, commentaries and reviews that are of interest to learners and professionals who care for children and adolescents;
    •Helping to advance the field of academic pediatrics;
    •Strengthening the research and educational base of academic pediatrics; and
    •Providing the evidence base for optimal child health care, pediatric education, and child health policy.
    The content areas of the Journal reflect the general interests of Academic Pediatric Association members and other health professionals who care for children. Areas of particular interest include child health services research, quality of clinical care, pediatric education, child health policy, and research methodology. Content areas for the Journal include such diverse topics as adolescent medicine, child maltreatment and protection, chronic illness, community pediatrics, developmental and behavioral pediatrics, emergency medicine, environmental medicine, financing, global pediatrics, health disparities, holistic medicine, hospital medicine, informatics, injury, medical education across the continuum, pediatric advocacy, prevention, pediatric primary care problems, and public health.
    Please address editorial questions to:
    Peter G. Szilagyi, MD, MPH, Editor-in-Chief
    Academic Pediatrics
    Department of Pediatrics
    University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
    Strong Memorial Hospital
    601 Elmwood Avenue
    Box 777
    Rochester, NY 14642
    Phone: 585 275-5798
    Fax: 585 276-2595
    e-mail: journal@academicpeds.org

    Research articles - Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Most research articles published in the Journal use quantitative methods, and the maximum length for these manuscripts is 3500 words. The word limit for manuscripts reporting qualitative research is 4000 words. Mixed methods research will also be accepted. Concise, clear writing is one of the criteria by which editors and reviewers evaluate submissions. Manuscripts reporting original research should have a clear organization with an abstract and What's New, described below, an introduction, a methods sections (including a CONSORT flow diagram and checklist for randomized clinical trials [RCTs]), a results section, and a discussion. Academic Pediatrics will take into consideration the registration of RCTs in a public trials registry, as described by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (See www.icmje.org). Starting January 2015, all clinical trials must have been registered before enrolling the first subject.

    Brief Reports

    The Journal also publishes brief reports that describe interesting new ideas or innovations in pediatric medicine, health services, and medical education. Brief reports may raise new questions of interest to the Journal readership. Brief reports typically are judged using the same metrics as are other research articles. Brief reports should have no more than 2,000 words (excluding abstract, tables, and references) and a maximum of three tables or figures and 25 references. Other elements (abstract, What's New and references) meet usual Journal requirements for length and formatting, and peer review.

    Articles on Educational Research

    Articles describing educational research and interventions should measure and report outcomes beyond participants' reactions and change in knowledge. Demonstration of the impact of educational interventions  should include changes in observed behaviors of learners as a result of the intervention. Ultimately, new learned behaviors should have measurable impact through improved patient outcomes and/or enhanced child health.

    View from the Association of Pediatric Program Directors (APPD)

    Anyone with an interest in pediatric graduate medical education (GME) can submit a manuscript for consideration for publication in the View from APPD pages. Although any topic will be considered, we are particularly interested in manuscripts that address curricular innovation in pediatric GME or across the undergraduate medical education/GME continuum, implementation of ACGME program requirements, compliance with the new ACGME accreditation system, implementation and validation of the Pediatric Milestones, competency-based assessment (including the development and use of EPAs), and other innovative approaches to pediatric GME training.
    Manuscripts should be less than 2000 words and the use of figures or tables will need clear justification. Importantly, all manuscripts should be well grounded in evidence published in the medical and education literature. Manuscripts that pair more junior authors with well-established senior authors are particularly desirable. Finally, all manuscripts will undergo peer review consistent with the policies of Academic Pediatrics.
    To submit a manuscript, or an idea for a manuscript, please contact the Associate Editor for APPD Pages, Daniel West at westdc@peds.ucsf.edu. The associate editor will work with you to develop the best approach for your submission.

    Perspectives

    Perspectives presents important pediatric topics, with an emphasis on research findings in the previous five years and identifying areas for future study. The Perspectives Editors solicit most articles with input about topics and potential authors from the Journal's senior editorial group. Authors will generally be respected authorities in the area and may include a fellow or junior faculty member as a co-author. The manuscript should be about 4500-5000 words. It should include an overview of key questions and important research in a field, indicating the recent advances in the underlying science, and ending with a vision of the research and/or policy issues that should be addressed in the near future. Where appropriate, Perspectives should also discuss implications for pediatric education and practice. The editors will work with authors as needed and may request an annotated outline of the manuscript. All Perspectives manuscripts are peer-reviewed. For questions or suggestions about a Perspectives topic, please contact John Pascoe at john.pascoe@wright.edu or Paul C. Young at Paul.Young@hsc.utah.edu

    Systematic Reviews

    Systematic reviews are critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to one of four areas: 1) pediatric research methods, 2) pediatric education and pediatric professional development, 3) pediatric health policy, and 4) pediatric health care delivery. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated, and the selection process should be described in the article. Typical length: 2000 to 3500 words (not including tables, figures, and references). Evidence tables that list specific studies would generally be published in an online-only appendix, while the print version would include the critical summary tables. Any manuscript over 4000 words will not be considered unless this has been previously discussed with the editor. Robert Jacobson at jacobson.robert@mayo.edu. Specific requirements for Systematic Reviews are described in more detail below.

    Narrative Reviews

    Narrative reviews, as opposed to systematic reviews, are particularly useful for topics with a fragmentary evidence base, such as emerging issues, singular events, or new approaches. Our journal's four-fold focus is for topics in pediatric healthcare delivery, education, research, and public policy. Before conducting such a narrative review, prospective authorsmay wish to contact the Reviews Editor, Robert M Jacobson, MD, to gauge the acceptability of the topic. As with all submissions toAcademic Pediatrics, submitted manuscripts will undergo peer-review for determination of acceptance.

    Narrative reviews should be limited in scope and length. The title should specify that the report is a narrative review. The content should be limited to 2400 words with a maximum of 4 figures and tables total, and no more than 50 references. The structure should be organic, taking its organization from the topic, rather than forced into that of an original scientific contribution. Include neither an abstract nor a call-out box entitled, "What this study adds." As with other manuscript-types, the review should not have been published previously.

    Supplements

    The Journal publishes supplements on topics of interest to its readers. Authors interested in supplements to the Journal should contact the Editor-in-Chief to discuss interest and procedures. Supplements should have a guest editor, who helps with the initial review of manuscripts and organization of the supplement, as well as suggesting reviewers for the manuscripts. All manuscripts proposed for a supplement have external review (as with other submissions to the Journal), and final decisions on publication remain with the Journal's editors, in consultation with the guest editor for the supplement.

    In The Moment - Personal Narratives

    We invite submissions to "In the Moment", the personal narratives section of Academic Pediatrics. "In the Moment" is a forum for authors to relate their personal experience of pediatrics. We are seeking narrative pieces about research, contact with patients, the influence of mentors, the impact of policy and current events, and the relationship of the author's work to their lives and the lives of others. Essays should describe these experiences and make connections to larger themes in pediatrics education, research, policy, and clinical care. The section is a vibrant forum for all of us to relate the stories and perspectives that are such an important part of our work and ongoing medical education.
    Submissions should be no more than 2500 words in length and do not need abstracts or "What's New" descriptions. Data and the work of others must be appropriately referenced. Papers should be submitted through the editorial website. Please direct questions to Anjali Jain, MD at anjali.jain@lewin.com.

    Commentaries

    The editors occasionally solicit brief (about 1000 word) commentaries regarding papers published in the Journal or recent reports of activities of interest to readers. Commentaries differ from Perspectives by being briefer and more focused on specific topics, questions, or manuscripts.Most commentaries are solicited by the editors. If you wish to submit a commentary, please contact the editor-in-chief at journals@academicpeds.org.

    Cover Letter

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, or as a poster session at a professional meeting. See http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.?? A cover letter, that includes this assurance and is signed by all authors, must be included with each submission. Authors at distant locations can sign individual copies of the letter and forward them to the corresponding author who will then collect all letters and include them with the submission.

    Formatting

    All manuscripts should be prepared with standard word processing software. Text, abstract and “What’s New” should be double spaced in 12-point font, and pages numbered. Tables and figures should be placed together at the end of the manuscript. Tables may be submitted in word processor format at the end of the manuscript’s text or as separate files after uploading the text, but figures must be submitted as separate files. Black and white figures will be printed without charge. Authors bear the costs for printing colored tables or figures. More information regarding figures appears below.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Authorship

    All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

    Authorship

    All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. The Journal limits authors to a maximum of eight. Exceptions to this rule will require justification and approval by the Editor-in-Chief. One person should be designated as the lead author. If authorship is attributed to a group of individuals, each individual must achieve the criteria for authorship described below.

    Authorship Criteria

    In order to meet authorship criteria, each author must have participated sufficiently in the work of the study and manuscript to acknowledge publicly responsibility for the manuscript. At least one author must be able to take public responsibility for the entire work, from idea to complete manuscript. Academic Pediatrics follows published uniform recommendations for criteria for authorship (see references). All three of the following criteria must be met for authorship:
    1. Substantial involvement and contribution to the idea or the study question, or to the study design, or to the fieldwork component, or to the analysis, or to the interpretation of study findings; and
    2. Writing drafts of the manuscript, or reviewing drafts or revisions critically with substantial input; and
    3. Approval of the final version of the manuscript.

    Copyright

    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details you are referred to: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal does not ordinarily have publication charges; however, authors can now opt to make their articles available to all (including non-subscribers) via the ScienceDirect platform, for which a fee of US $3000 applies (for further information on open access see http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-options). Please note that you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication, to avoid any perception of conflict of interest. The fee excludes taxes and other potential costs such as color charges. In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. Authors of accepted articles, who wish to take advantage of this option, should complete and submit the order form (available at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/openaccessform.pdf). Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author, including the right to post a revised personal version of your article on your own website. More information can be found here: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/academicpeds/.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    The title page is the first page of all manuscripts. It includes:
    •The manuscript's title;
    •Names, degrees, department, affiliation, full postal address, city and state and email address of all authors;
    •Name, mailing address, email address, phone and fax number of the corresponding author; contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address.If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to tht author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
    •3-5 keywords (not required for In The Moment or commentaries);
    •Running title or header of no more than 60 characters including spaces;
    •Separate word counts for the abstract and the main text;
    •Acknowledge the research or project support with the relevant agency, grant or project number, and the principal investigator. Briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any in study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in teh writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Relevant information should be included on the title page. please see http://www.elsevier.com/funding.
    •Description of potential conflicts of interest and corporate sponsors.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    The abstract is the second page of all manuscripts with the exception of "In the Moment - Personal Narratives" for which an abstract is not required. Abstracts should be prepared with a structured format with a maximum of 250 words. Four elements should be addressed: objective, methods, results, and conclusions. Please label each section clearly with the appropriate subheading.

    What's New

    What's New provides authors an opportunity to summarize in no more than 40 words how this research contributes to the knowledge base of the field. What’s New is not required for In the Moment, commentaries, and systematic reviews.

    Manuscript Text

    The manuscript's text, double spaced, varies with the type of article submitted. Please direct specific questions to the Editorial Office or section editor. Special requirements for Systematic Reviews appear below.
    All manuscripts, including title page, tables, figures, and references, should be prepared according to "Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals." Grammar, punctuation, scientific writing style and abbreviations should follow the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 10th edition. Any uncommon abbreviations should be listed at the beginning of the article. Confidence intervals usually provide more helpful information than P values.

    Human Subjects

    Appropriate approval by all institutional or other human subjects review boards must be designated in the methods section. Authors should indicate formal review and approval, or formal review and waiver.

    Funding

    All sources of funding for the study should be identified in the Acknowledgements section. In addition, if not apparent from the type of study, the specific role of the funder should be delineated as described in the Conflicts of Interest section on the title page.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ or visit our customer support site http://support.elsevier.com for more information

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    References

    All authors should have read all cited references. Please number references in the order they appear in the text. Unpublished references or meeting abstracts should not be included although articles accepted for publication or in press are permissible. Include the names of all authors for four and fewer; for references with more than four authors, provide the names of the first three and then et al. References to Web sites should include the date accessed. References should be double-spaced and generally not exceed 35. Spell out journal titles or use standard AMA abbreviations. References should follow AMA style.

    Reference style
    Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see http://www.amanualofstyle.com).
    List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Specific Requirements for Systematic Reviews

    Submissions should meet at a minimum the standards published by an international group led by David Moher, Ph.D. of the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI) and the University of Ottawa entitled Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Authors should access the PRISMA Statement (www.prisma-statement.org), which consists of the 27-item PRISMA Checklist, the PRISMA Flow Diagram, and the PRISMA Explanation and Elaboration Document.2 The PRISMA Explanation and Elaboration Document also includes additional considerations for systematic reviews of non-randomized intervention studies or for other types of systematic reviews. We would encourage authors also to consider the recommendations of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) Group.3 The submitted report should include all 27 PRISMA items listed on the PRISMA Checklist including the PRISMA Flow Diagram (Item 17 on the checklist). The flow diagram depicts the flow of information through the different phases of a systematic review. It maps out the number of records identified, included and excluded, and the reasons for exclusions. We will publish the flow diagram as a figure as part of the print version as well as the online version. As stated above, we will publish evidence tables to address Item 18 on the checklist in the online version only, which, nevertheless, is the article of record for the journal. The submitted manuscript should include a Title Page. On a separate page, list MeSH Key Words for the purpose of indexing the report. Include on a separate page an Abstract. Structure the abstract as a summary of the report and include the following headings, as applicable, as prescribed in the PRISMA checklist: Background; Objectives; Data Sources; Study Eligibility Criteria, Participants, and Interventions; Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods; Results; Limitations; Conclusions and Implications of Key Findings; and Systematic Review Registration Number. For the body of the paper, use the major headings of Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Also, on a separate page, list Acknowledgments. Acknowledgments should specify the sources of funding for the systematic review and other support and note the role of the funders for the systematic review. Refer to the PRISMA Flow Diagram as a figure in the Results section. Include each figure and table as separate pages in the manuscript to follow the References. Use this journal's Instructions for Authors for details regarding citations. Along with the figures and tables, include on a separate page a box containing no more than 40 words to be entitled, "What this Systematic Review Adds" describing perhaps in three bullet points this systematic review's contribution to the literature. Also, include on a separate page a box containing no more than 40 words to be entitled "How to Use this Systematic Review" and discuss, perhaps in 3 bullets, how academic pediatricians should apply these findings to their work.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Submitting a Manuscript

    Authors should submit all manuscripts through the Journal's editorial website, http://ees.elsevier.com/academicpeds/. The manuscript submission process is broken into a series of screens that gather detailed information about the manuscript, including title, article type, author listings, abstract, keywords, topical classifications, and that allow authors to upload all pertinent files including the cover letter, manuscript, figures, and tables. A detailed tutorial with a step-by-step walk-through is available for download on the EES homepage.

    Manuscript Review Process

    Three external peer reviewers review most manuscripts. The Journal makes every effort to expedite this process. The average time from submission to initial decision is 39 days. As part of the submission process, you will be able to suggest possible peer reviewers. Suggested individuals should have no conflicts of interest and should not have any knowledge of the submitted manuscript.
    Please indicate names of reviewers who may have a conflict of interest.
    Manuscript Status: You can check the status of your manuscript at any time by logging into the system with your password and clicking on the link "Submissions Being Processed."
    This procedure will display the status of your manuscript during the submission/peer-review process.

    Acceptance Criteria

    Relevance to readers (esp., educators, scientists, policymakers, and clinicians) is of major importance in manuscript selection. Reports of original research will be judged on the importance and originality of the research; the scientific strength; the relevance to clinical care, programs, education, or policy; the clarity with which it is presented, and the novelty of the new knowledge it adds.
    The Journal does not publish clinical case reports.
    Education interventions must include an evaluation component, preferably one that goes beyond increasing knowledge to assessing and demonstrating whether the intervention changes learners' behavior, skills, or potentially health care quality or outcomes. Multi-site education innovations are generally reviewed more favorably than single site experiments.

    Inquiries Regarding Decisions

    Corresponding authors with questions regarding manuscript decisions should send inquiries to journal@academicpeds.org. Messages will be forwarded to the appropriate editor for response.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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