Guide to Science, Law and Technology


  • Tony Dennison, RN(LD), RN(MH), MA, BA (Hons), PGCE, Senior Lecturer/Programme Leader University of Cumbria Lancaster UK
  • James F Berry, Elmurst College, USA

This book is intended as a practical guide to scientific, legal, and technical issues concerning wetlands. As such, it is written in the most practical terms, with numerous helpful examples and case studies of how specific issues should best be addressed. The book is organized in a way that exposes the reader in logical succession to the full gamut of complex scientific, legal, and technical aspects of wetlands. This book recognizes that wetland science, law, and technology are interdependent disciplines. Most other works focus on one of these disciplines while perhaps providing some cursory treatment of related disciplines. This book attempts to meld several different perspectives on the subject of wetlands and to show the interrelationships between the various professions that deal with wetland issues. The book is organized as a guide through the various scientific, legal, and technical components of wetlands. Within each individual chapter, extensive cross-referencing is provided to help the reader link related aspects of the issue being discussed. Further, within the presentation of each separate chapter is a discussion of how the various scientific, legal, and technical aspects of the subject interrelate. Each chapter has been written by a known authority with specialized experience in the topic being presented.
View full description


A practical guide to scientific, legal, and technical issue for anyone directly or indirectly involved with wetland protection and remediation.


Book information

  • Published: December 1993
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1333-9

Table of Contents

1. OverviewMark S. Dennison, James F. Berry 1.1 Purpose and Scope of the Book 1.2 Introduction to Wetlands 1.3 Introduction to Regulation 1.4 Interplay Between Science and Regulation 1.5 Jurisdictional Determinations2. Ecological Principles of Wetland EcosystemsJames F. Berry 2.1 An Introduction to the Ecosystems 2.2 Community and Population Analysis 2.3 Wetland Functions and Values 2.4 Wetland Conservation3. Freshwater WetlandsJames A. Kushlan 3.1 Swamps 3.2 Marshes 3.3 Bogs 3.4 Deep Water and Other Inland Aquatic Ecosystems 3.5 Ponds and Lakes4. Estuarine WetlandsRobert J. Livingston 4.1 Estuarine Wetland Functions and Values 4.2 Salt Marshes 4.3 Mangrove Swamps 4.4 Wetland Values and the Future of Estuarine Wetlands5. Field Recognition and Delineation of WetlandsRalph W. Tiner 5.1 Purpose and Use of the Corps Manual 5.2 Wetland Indicators 5.3 Field Procedures for Wetland Delineation 5.4 Major Wetland Data Sources6. Problem Wetlands for DelineationRalph W. Tiner 6.1 Problematic Wetland Plant Communities 6.2 Problematic Hydric Soils 6.3 Hydrologically Difficult Wetlands 6.4 Problematic Field Conditions7. The Regulatory FrameworkMark S. Dennison, James F. Berry 7.1 Clean Water Act 404 Program 7.2 Dredge and Fill Permics 7.3 Corps Responses to 404 Permit Applications 7.4 Remedies for 404 Permit Denials 7.5 Challenging Issuance of a 404 Permit 7.6 Impact of Other Federal Environmental Laws 7.7 Advanced Identification of Wetlands (ADID) 7.8 Special Area Management Plans (SAMPS) 7.9 State and Local Wetland Regulations8. Wetland MitigationJames F. Berry, Mark Dennison 8.1 The Regulatory Framework 8.2 Corps/EPA 404(b)(1) Mitigation Guidelines and Joint MOA 8.3 Forms of Mitigation 8.4 Wetland Banking9. Assessing Risks to Ecological Resources in WetlandsThomas P. Burns 9.1 Endpoints and Understanding 9.2 The Ecological Risk Assessment 9.3 ERAs and Wetlands 9.4 Summary10. Restoration and Creation of WetlandsRobert P. Brooks 10.1 Definitions 10.2 The State-of-the-Technology 10.3 The Process 10.4 Case Study - Tipton Demonstration Wetlands 10.5 Cost Considerations and Conclusions 10.6 Guide to Wetland Permit Sequencing and Project Management for Wetland Restoration or CreationAppendicesList of Abbreviations and AcronymsIndices