Water at the Surface of Earth book cover

Water at the Surface of Earth

An Introduction to Ecosystem Hydrodynamics

Water at the Surface of the Earth: An Introduction to Ecosystem Hydrodynamics provides an introduction to the ways in which biological, physical, cultural, and urban systems at the surface of the earth operate, with a particular focus on the hydrodynamics of ecosystems, i.e., water and its association with other forms of matter, including pollutants, and with several forms of energy. The chapter sequence in this book follows the downward progress of water from the lower atmosphere, through ecosystems at the earth's surface, through the soil and mantle rock, to the ""waters under the earth."" In other words, the book begins with input of water to ecosystems, then describes how it is processed in these systems, and ends with the liquid water yield from them. The book first discusses storms in the atmosphere. These are systems that convert inflows of water vapor into outflows of raindrops and snowflakes that are precipitated to the underlying surface. This is followed by separate chapters on how water is delivered from the atmosphere to surface ecosystems; water budgets at the surface and in the soil; evaporation from these systems back to the atmosphere; water in the local air and rocks; and horizontal movement of water transformed by ecosystems where the preceding storages and fluxes were located.

Included in series
International Geophysics

Paperback, 557 Pages

Published: August 1982

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-496752-6

Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter I Introduction

    Just What is the Earth's Surface?

    The Budget Idea

    Water in Systems

    Water Supplied by the Atmosphere to the Earth's Surface

    Chapter II Atmospheric Vapor Flows and Atmospheric Storms

    Water Vapor and Its Movement over the Earth's Surface

    Atmospheric Storms

    Sizes and Movement of Atmospheric Storms

    Atmospheric Storms: Causes of Variability in Rainfall

    References

    Chapter III Point Rainfall-The Delivery of Water to an Ecosystem

    Measuring Rain and Snow

    The Dimensions of Point Rainfall

    The Frequency of Precipitation-Intensity Events

    Water Delivery to Ecosystems

    References

    Chapter IV Hydrologic Storms

    The Area of Hydrologic Storms

    Areal Syntheses

    The Episodic Occurrence of Hydrologic Storms

    Closing

    References

    Chapter V Large-Scale Organization of Rainfall

    Organization of Storms in Time

    Spatial Grouping of Rainfall

    Spatial Pattern of Annual Precipitation

    Areal Pattern of Long-Term Changes in Rainfall

    Associated Mass Fluxes

    Time and Space Organization of the Water Delivered to Ecosystems

    References

    Chapter VI Reception of Water by Ecosystems

    Ecosystem Hydrodynamics

    Delivery of Rain and Snow to Vegetation

    Interception of Water by Vegetation

    Storage of Rain and Snow on Foliage during Storms

    The Outflows from Interception Storage of Rain and Snow

    Evaporation as a Mode of Outflow from Interception Storage

    Water Intercepted by Litter

    Areal Redistribution of Water by Vegetation above the Soil

    References

    Chapter VII Water Detained on the Soil Surface

    Snow Cover

    Liquid Water on the Ground

    Outflows from Detention Storage

    References

    Chapter VIII Infiltration of Water into the Soil of an Ecosystem

    The Soil as Environment of Water

    Infiltration of Water into the Soil

    Influences of Vegetation on Infiltration

    Time Differences in Infiltration

    Infiltrated Water in Ecosystems

    References

    Chapter IX Soil Moisture

    Soil-Moisture Bookkeeping

    Soil-Moisture Distributions in Space

    Time Variations of Soil Moisture

    Freezing and Melting of Soil Water

    Outflows of Water from the Soil

    References

    Chapter X Evaporation from Wet Surfaces

    Determining Evaporation Rates

    Evaporation from Deep Water Bodies

    Evaporation from Shallow Water Bodies

    Evaporation from a Wet Soil Surface

    Evaporation

    References

    Chapter XI Evaporation from Well-Watered Ecosystems

    Transpiration of Water from Leaves

    Evapotranspiration from Plant Communities

    Empirical Patterns of Potential Evapotranspiration

    Evaporation Differs with Ecosystems

    References

    Chapter XII Evaporation from Drying Ecosystems

    Bare Soil Surfaces

    Evapotranspiration from a Drying Soil-Vegetation System

    Variations in Evapotranspiration over Time

    Large-Scale Patterns

    The Era of Evaporation

    References

    Chapter XIII Water in the Local Air

    Water Vapor in the Local Air

    Visible Forms of Water in the Local Air

    Condensation of Vapor on the Underlying Surface

    References

    Chapter XIV Percolation from Ecosystems

    Shallow Percolation

    Deeper Percolation

    Mass Transports by Percolating Water

    Significance of Percolation

    Percolation and Recharge

    References

    Chapter XV Groundwater and Its Outflows into Local Ecosystems

    The Environments of Groundwater

    Groundwater Recharge

    The Volume of Stored Underground Water

    Mass Budgets Associated with Groundwater

    Local Outflows of Water from Underground Storage

    Artificial Outflows from Underground Storage

    Groundwater Budgets

    References

    Chapter XVI Surface Transports from Ecosystems

    Movement of Snow

    Gravity-Powered Movement of Liquid Water

    Other Forms of Mass Transport Associated with the Flow of Water at and near the Surface

    Time Variations in Off-Site Flow

    Off-Site Flows from Ecosystems

    References

    Chapter XVII Off-Site Yield of Ecosystems

    Outflows from Groundwater Storage

    Water Yield as Associated with Biological Yield

    Total Off-Site Movement of Water

    Total Yield

    References

    Chapter XVIII Water in Ecosystems

    Environments of Water in Ecosystems

    Unknowns and Uncertainties in Water Budgets

    Patterns of Distribution

    Water is Everywhere

    References

    Index


Advertisement

advert image