Waste Minimization and Cost Reduction for the Process Industries


  • Paul N. Cheremisinoff, United States Agency for International Development

The purpose of this book is to provide a base of information and analysis to assist in implementation of the policy of reducing and/or minimizing hazardous waste generation in manufacturing and more specifically in the process industries. What is the significance of reducing the generation of all process wastes? This book examines the technical nature of waste reduction and the extent to which waste reduction can likely be implemented. Also explored is the extent to which technology itself, as well as information and resources, is a barrier to waste reduction. In what ways are waste reduction decisions dependent on specific circumstances? Can the amount of feasible waste reduction be estimated? Auditing of manufacturing and unit operations and processes are particularly significant and useful in the chemical process industries (food, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, fertilizer, petrochemicals, etc.) since it is estimated that these industries account for more than half of the hazardous wastes generated. This book presents a compilation of complete information on potential sources of waste loss or generation through technical inspection. Also presented are calculation methods for determining air-waste-solid wastes material balances, informational requirements and waste reduction analysis.The reader should find the book useful in the areas of auditing and waste minimization. It is replete with useful information as well as specific case histories, which should make it a practical tool for the user.
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Chemical process industries (food, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, fertilizer, petrochemicals, etc.)


Book information

  • Published: December 1995
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1388-9


"The book presents an in-depth exploration of waste minimization practices..."- The Air Pollution Consultant

Table of Contents

1. Waste Reduction Background Objectives Prevention and Control International Dimensions Waste Reduction Methods Broad Approaches to Waste Reduction Waste Reduction Examples Waste Reduction Decisions Technology and Information How Much Waste Reduction Waste Reduction Data Information Needs Waste Reduction Information Measure Waste Reduction Hazardous Waste Reduction International Perspective2. Auditing Environmental Factors and Audit Summary Checklist Overview3. Waste Minimization Data/Information Requirements Getting Started List Process Steps and Identify Wasteful Streams Analyzing Process Steps - Preparing Process Flow Charts Material and Energy Balances Technical Feasibility Environmental Aspects Implementation Solutions Monitor and Evaluate Results Audit Studies Identification Required of Water Pollution Sources for Waste Reduction/Minimization Potentials4. Estimating Releases to the Environment Data to be Determined Sources of Wastes/Releases Overview of Analysis Definitions of Major Approaches Observations on the Use of Data Approach to Use Estimating Releases to Air Sources of Release to Air and Release Estimation Methods Estimating Releases in Wastewater Sources of Wastewater and Methods for its Disposal Sources and Disposal Methods for Solid, Slurry and Nonaqueous Liquid Wastes Methods for Calculating Releases in Solid, Slurry and Nonaqueous Liquid Wastes5. Waste Questionnaires - Water Control Checklist Model Questionnaires Environmentallly Safe Layout for Manufacturing Units Guidelines to Minimize Material Losses and Wastes6. Analysis of Process Chemistry Example Processes Acetic Adic by Methanol Carbonylation Acetalaldehyde by Liquid-Phae Ethylene Oxidation Process Descriptions for Oxidizing Ethylene to Acetalaldehyde Process Chemistry7. Industry Profile - Fertilizers Introduction Manufacturing Processes Generation of Impurities and Pollutants Pollutant Parameters - Effects Abatement of Pollution8. Treatment of Effluent Fertilizer Industry Example Nitrogenous Pollutants Ammoniacal Nitrogen Organic Nitrogen Oxidized Nitrogen Other Constituents Recovery, Reuse and Recycle in the Process Housekeeping Separation Technologies for Removal of Organic and Pesticidal Chemicals from WastewaterIndex