Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films, and FoilsBy
- Charles Bishop, CAB Consulting, Ltd.
This new book from William Andrew Publishing is the only practical reference available for anyone employing the roll-to-roll deposition process. Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils is an expansive journey of the process; benefiting manufacturing efficiency, unit cost reduction, and financial results. It is a sweeping approach to the total design of the vacuum deposition process written by a successful and world renowned consultant with three decades of experience.Roll-to-roll deposition processing is a high growth industry and this reference covers a wide variety of important industrial products that use vacuum deposited coatings, including: optical storage devices, metallized packaging films, energy conservation windows, electronic information displays, and magnetic electronic article surveillance (EAS) tags among many others. This book is a must-have for roll-to-roll machine operators, process engineers, and research and development engineers throughout industry.The book provides a broad appreciation of roll-to-roll vacuum deposition systems and processes. It will encourage a more comprehensive look from material supply through to the downstream processes that the product will encounter. It is a truly unique reference written to guide operators and engineers as an onsite consultant would.
This reference covers a wide variety of important industrial products that use vacuum deposited coatings, including: optical storage devices, metallized packaging films, energy conservation windows, electronic information displays, and magnetic electronic article surveillance (EAS) tags among many others. This book is a must-have for roll-to-roll machine operators, process engineers, and research and development engineers throughout industry.
Published: December 2006
Imprint: William Andrew
"...a comprehensive reference work for anybody working in vacuum coating of polymer films." - Dr. A.G. Spencer, Alacritas Consultancy, Ltd.
- Section I: Vacuum Basics What is a vacuum? What is a gas? Pressure Partial Pressure Vapour pressure Saturated Vapour Pressure Why do we need a vacuum? Mean Free Path2. Products using vacuum deposited coatings Metallized packaging films Capacitor films Optical data storage (ODS) tapes Holographic coatings Flake Pigments Transparent barrier coatings Transparent conducting coatings (TCOs) Energy conservation windows Solar cells Solar absorbers Flexible circuits Optical variable devices (OVDs) Magnetic electronic article surveillance (EAS) tags Pyrotechnics Thin film batteries3. Pressure Measurement Bourdon gauge Pirani & Thermocouple gauges Capacitance Manometer Penning or cold cathode ionisation gauge Ion or hot cathode ionisation gauge4. Pumping Rotary or Roughing pumps Rootes pumps or blowers Diffusion pumps Turbomolecular pumps Getter or sputter ion pump Cryopumps Pumping strategy System pumping5. Process Diagnostics & Coating Characteristics Reflectance (R), Transmittance (T) & Absorbtance (A) measurements Optical Density R,T, & A measurements Conductivity / resistivity On-line resistance monitoring Transparent conducting coatings Residual Gas Analysers (RGA) Plasma Emission Monitors (PEM) Thickness Barrier Neural Network control systems Chemometrics Surface energy measurements Emissivity6. Leaks, water vapour and leak testing Real leaks Imaginary leaks Outgassing & Water Vapour Leak Detection7. Mass spectrometers, Helium leak detectors & residual gas analysersSection II: Substrates, surface modification and nucleation8. Substrates - surface quality, cleaning - adhesion & adhesion testing Substrates Polymer Surface quality Substrate Cleaning Surface Etching Metal web & surface quality Metal surface contamination Paper Foams, non-wovens, textiles The 'Sellotape' test Adhesion tests Cores Packaging9. Surface treatment of webs & foils Cleaning & Sealing Cleaning System design considerations Polymer coating basic information10. Nucleation, coalescence & film growth. Thin film û Thick film Nucleation Coalescence Network & percolation threshold Holes Film growth Energy Electrical & Optical performance Crystal Structure Deposition rules of thumbSection III. Process11. The D.C. Glow Discharge or Plasma The Townsend Discharge The Breakdown Voltage The Transition region The Normal Glow Discharge The Abnormal Glow Discharge The Arc Triodes and Magnetically enhanced plasmas12. Electron beam (e-beam) evaporation Filaments and electron emission E-beam control Power supply Crucibles and feed systems System design13. Thermal evaporation Boats Wire feeding Wire Spitting & Pinholes Thin film measurement Power supplies & control Coating uniformity14. Radiant heated and Induction heated sources Radiant heated sources Radiation shields Induction heated sources15. Chemical Vapour Deposition / Polymerisation onto webs. Substrate temperature Power Pressure Substrate bias Fluorinated plasma polymerisation Carbon - Fluorine plasmas CVD of Barrier coatings16. Planar Magnetron Sputtering source design and operation. D.C. planar magnetron sputtering source Balanced and Un-balanced magnetron sputtering Anodes Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering Arcing and control of arcs Water-cooling End effects Troubleshooting magnetron sputtering sources17. Planar magnetron design options. Single or Dual magnetron sputtering source Anode included or not? Balanced or unbalanced magnetic fields Fixed or variable magnetic performance Internal or external fitting Direct or indirect cooling Single or multiple materials Linked or isolated cathodes Cost implications Coating uniformity Magnets18. Reactive deposition û set-up & control Target preconditioning Control options Hysteresis loop Monitors Time constants Pumping Control of arcs RF sputteringSection IV: System issues19. Machine specification & build issues Risk Analysis - process Mistake-proofing or Fool-proofing Project Management Safety Costs Machine specification Maintenance & spares20. Heat load on the webs/foils Introduction Potential winding problems Characteristic winding problems associated with too much heat Heating webs21. Process variables Drum surface roughness Polymer surface roughness Material properties Deposition rate and winding speed Water content of polymer Drum temperature Single or double side coating Source type Heat load calculations Heat transfer coefficient22. Mechanical design Pumping Non-Uniform pumping Shields23. Winding webs in vacuum System design Tension measurement û load cells Alignment & roll spacing Materials Related items & materials Substrates û variable width & tension Key points on winding Safety24. Metallizer machine building trends Metallizers Speciality machines25. System design System choices Batch vs air-to-air processing26. Hazards Risk Assessment Mechanical Electrical Thermal Chemical Material Interactions Hazardous gases Cold traps & Cryopumps Cleaning hazards Ergonomic & Miscellaneous.27. Troubleshooting Troubleshooting vacuum Troubleshooting process Troubleshooting winding problems Troubleshooting adhesion Troubleshooting - common problems & diagnostic tools Thermal evaporation by resistance heated boats