UV-visible Spectrophotometry of Water and Wastewater book cover

UV-visible Spectrophotometry of Water and Wastewater

UV-Visible Spectrophotometry of Water and Wastewater is the first book dedicated to the use of UV spectrophotometry for water and wastewater quality monitoring. Using practical examples the reader is shown how this technique can be a source of new methods of characterization and measurement. Easy and fast to run, this simple and robust analytical technique must be considered as one of the best ways to obtain a quantitative estimation of specific or aggregate parameters (eg. Nitrate, TOC), and simultaneously qualitative information on the global composition of water and its variation.

Audience
Practitioners that are searching for solutions in monitoring water and wastewater as well as researchers and instrument designers interested in environmental metrology and sensor design

Hardbound, 372 Pages

Published: March 2007

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53092-9

Contents

  • Chapter 1 : The basics of spectrophotometric measurement1. Introduction
    2. Interaction of light and matter
    2.1. The electromagnetic spectrum
    2.2. The origin of spectra, absorption of radiation by atoms, ions and molecules
    2.3. Quantitative laws of the attenuation of light
    2.4. Nomenclature
    3. Factors affecting the quality of spectral data
    3.1. Good Spectroscopic Practice
    3.2. Instrumental criteria
    3.3. Optimal Spectrophotometric Range Chapter 2: From spectra to qualitative and quantitative results1. Introduction
    2. Basic handling of UV spectra
    2.1. One spectrum transformation
    2.2. Two spectra comparison
    2.3. Evolution study from a spectra set
    3. Concentration calculation
    3.1. Ideal case : pure solution with no interference
    3.2. Real samples : mathematical compensation of interferences
    3.3. Real samples : statistical and hyphenated methods Chapter 3: Organic constituents1. Introduction
    2. Coloured Organic compounds
    2.1. Dyes
    2.2. Coloured reagents
    3. UV absorbing organic compounds
    3.1. Aldehydes and ketones
    3.2. Amines
    3.3. Benzene and related compounds
    3.4. PAH
    3.5. Pesticides
    3.6. Phenols
    3.7. Phtalates
    3.8. Sulfur Organic Compounds
    3.9. Surfactants
    4. Non absorbing organic compounds
    4.1. Carbonyl compounds: use of absorbing derivatives
    4.2. Aliphatic amines and amino acids: photo-oxidation
    4.3. Carbohydrates: photo-degradation Chapter 4: Aggregate organic constituents1. Introduction
    2. Reference methods assistance
    2.1. BOD measurement
    2.2. COD final determination
    2.3. TOC explanation
    3. UV estimation of BOD, COD and TOC
    3.1. UV spectra modeling
    3.2. Parameter calculation and calibration
    3.3. Validation
    4. UV estimation of class of organic compounds
    4.1. Surfactants (anionic)
    4.2. Phenol index
    4.3. PAH (index)
    4.4. Other classes of organic compounds
    5. UV recovery of organic pollution parameters Chapter 5: Mineral constituents1. Introduction
    2. Inorganic non metallic constituents
    2.1. N compounds
    2.2. P compounds
    2.3. S compounds
    2.4. Cl compounds
    3. Metallic constituents
    3.1. Chromium (direct measurement)
    3.2. Metallic constituents determination by complexometry Chapter 6: Physical and aggregate properties1. Introduction
    2. Color
    2.1. Determination of color
    2.2. Relation between colour and visible absorbance
    3. Physical diffuse absorbance
    3.1. Some elements on diffusion of light by particles
    3.2. Methods for the study of heterogeneous fractions
    3.3. UV-visible responses of mineral suspensions
    3.4. UV responses of wastewater
    4. TSS estimation
    4.1. Turbidimetry
    4.2. UV estimation of TSS Chapter 7: Natural water1. Introduction
    2. Significance of UV spectra of natural water
    3. Quality of natural water
    3.1. Study of water quality variation along a river
    3.2. Rain influence on river water quality
    3.3. Study of wetland water quality
    3.4. Study of lakes water quality
    3.5. Groundwater study
    4. Study of wastewater discharge
    4.1. Discharge in river
    4.2. Discharge in sea
    4.3. Accidental discharge
    5. Drinking water quality
    5.1. Mineral water quality
    5.2. Production of tap water Chapter 8: Urban wastewater 1. Introduction
    2. Sewers
    2.1. Fresh domestic effluent
    2.2. Variation of quality according to time
    2.3. Evolution along the sewer
    2.4. Effect of rain
    2.5. Synthesis and other applications
    3. Treatment processes
    3.1. Primary settling assistance
    3.2. Physico-chemical treatment assistance
    3.3. Biological processes
    3.4. Complementary technique: membrane filtration
    4. Applications
    4.1. Fixed biomass treatment plant
    4.2. Extensive process
    5. Classification of wastewater
    5.1. Typology of urban wastewater from UV spectra shape
    5.2. Automatic classification of water and wastewater Chapter 9: Industrial wastewater1. Introduction
    2. Wastewater characteristics
    2.1. Generalities
    2.2. Influence of industry nature
    2.3. Variability of industrial wastewater
    2.4. Quantitative estimation
    3. Treatment processes
    3.1. Physico-chemical processes
    3.2. Biological processes
    3.3. Hyphenated processes
    4. Waste management
    4.1. Sampling assistance
    4.2. Treatability tests assistance
    4.3. Spills detection
    4.4. Shock loading management
    4.5. External waste management
    5. Environmental impact
    5.1. Discharge
    5.2. Groundwater survey Chapter 10: Leachates and organic extracts from solids1. Introduction
    2. Landfill leachates
    2.1. Leachate characterisation
    2.2. Leachate treatment
    3. Polluted soils
    3.1. Polluted soils characterization
    3.2. Treatment of polluted soils
    4. Solid waste treatment by composting
    5. Natural soils and Sediments
    5.1. UV characterization
    5.2. Application : evolution of sediments in wetlands Chapter 11: UV spectra library 1. Introduction
    2. Spectra acquisition
    3. Spectra of compounds
    3.1. Acids and salts
    3.2. Aldehydes and ketones
    3.3. Amines and related compounds
    3.4. Benzene and related compounds
    3.5. Phenol and related compounds
    3.6. Phtalates
    3.7. Surfactants
    3.8. Pesticides
    3.9. Polyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    3.10. Solvents
    3.11. Inorganic compounds concentration)

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