Using Eye Movements as an Experimental Probe of Brain Function

A Symposium in Honor of Jean Büttner-Ennever

Edited by

  • R. Leigh, Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA
  • Christopher Kennard, Academic Unit of Neuroscience, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK Professor of Clinical Neurology

This volume of Progress in Brain Research is based on the proceedings of a conference, "Using Eye Movements as an Experimental Probe of Brain Function," held at the Charing Cross Hospital Campus of Imperial College London, UK on 5th -6th December, 2007 to honor Professor Jean Büttner-Ennever. With 87 contributions from international experts – both basic scientists and clinicians – the volume provides many examples of how eye movements can be used to address a broad range of research questions. Section 1 focuses on extraocular muscle, highlighting new concepts of proprioceptive control that involve even the cerebral cortex. Section 2 comprises structural, physiological, pharmacological, and computational aspects of brainstem mechanisms, and illustrates implications for disorders as diverse as opsoclonus, and congenital scoliosis with gaze palsy. Section 3 addresses how the cerebellum transforms neural signals into motor commands, and how disease of such mechanisms may lead to ataxia and disorders such as oculopalatal tremor. Section 4 deals with sensory-motor processing of visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and auditory inputs, such as are required for navigation, and gait. Section 5 illustrates how eye movements, used in conjunction with single-unit electrophysiology, functional imaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and lesion studies have illuminated cognitive processes, including memory, prediction, and even free will. Section 6 includes 18 papers dealing with disorders ranging from congenital to acquired forms of nystagmus, genetic and degenerative neurological disorders, and treatments for nystagmus and motion sickness.
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Neuroscientists, neurologists, opthalmologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and visual sciences.


Book information

  • Published: September 2008
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-53163-6

Table of Contents

Section 1: Using Novel Techniques to Define the Neural Substrate for Eye Movements Jean Büttner-Ennever, Munich: Re-mapping the oculomotor systemJoseph Demer, Los Angeles: Using high-definition MRI to re-define the mechanics of eye rotationsMichael Goldberg, New York: The cortical representation of oculomotor proprioceptionDavid Zee, Baltimore: How new knowledge of the anatomy of the eye muscles and their innervation translates into improved treatment of patients with ocular motor palsiesPaul Knox, Liverpool: Testing the influences of extraocular proprioception in humans James Sharpe, Toronto: Reinterpreting palsies of the ocular motor nerves Dominik Straumann: New insights into trochlear nerve palsyPaul May: Anatomical insights into peripheral gaze controlLouis Dell'Osso: How disrupting ocular proprioception can be therapy for congenital nsyatgmusSection 2: New Insights into Brainstem Generation of Ocular Motor CommandsAnja Horn, Munich: New insights into the circuitry and pharmacology of the brainstem reticular formationEdward Keller, San Francisco: Using multiple electrode arrays to map moving fields of neural activity in the superior colliculusPaul Gamlin, Birmingham: Synthesis of vergence control by brainstem circuitsHolger Rambold, Lübeck: Disturbances of vergence and saccadic eye movements by human brainstem lesionsChristoph Helmchen, Luebeck: Understanding how the cerebellar disease could cause saccadic oscillationsStefano Ramat, Pavia: A brainstem network that accounts for abnormal saccadesMark Gibson, Belfast: Human saccadic disorders and their brainstem mechanismsRichard Clement: A black-box approach to saccadic disordersSection 3: Using Eye Movements as an Index of Transformation of Signals by the CerebellumStephen Highstein, St. Louis: How the cerebellar transforms sensory inputs into motor commandsAlbert Fuchs, Seattle: How visual and motor signals interact in the cerebellumJohn Stahl, Cleveland: How mutant mice with calcium channel defects provide insight into the cerebellar role in balanceMichael Strupp, Munich: How knowledge about calcium channel disorders translates into treatment of human cerebellar diseaseBernard Cohen, New York: Cerebellar governance of vestibular mechanismsMark Walker, Baltimore: Influence of cerebellar nodulus on translational vestibulo-ocular reflexUlrich Büttner, Munich: Control of smooth-pursuit eye movements by cerebellumRobert McCrea, Chicago: Influence of cerebellum on combined eye-head trackingAdolfo Bronstein, London: Degenerative disorders that affect the cerebellar control of eye movementsSection 3: Using Eye Movements as a Probe of Sensory-Motor ProcessingFrederick Miles, Bethesda: How the brain uses visual motion as we move through the environmentPeter Hoffmann: How motion signals are encoded in visual areasMichael Mustari, Atlanta: How disturbed maturation of visual motion processing leads to nystagmus in infancyThomas Brandt: How vestibular and visual inputs may be abnormally processed in cerebral cortexRichard Abadi, Manchester: Visual perceptions during ocular oscillationsMichael Gresty, London: Self-motion, gaze control and visual perceptionBernhard Hess, Zurich: Understanding interactions between responses to head rotations and translationsMichael Halmagyi, Sydney: Probing otolith-ocular reflexes using novel stimuli in humansSergei Yakushin, New York: How visual inputs from subcortical pathways influence perception of self-motionSection 4: Using Eye Movements as a Probe of Cognition James Lynch, Jackson: Concepts of the contribution of cerebral cortex based on new anatomical findings Kikuro Fukushima, Sapporo: Prediction, eye movements, and the frontal lobesRene Müri, Bern: Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe decision-making and memory Parashkev Nachev, London: Using functional imaging to during conflict resolution and free choiceCharles Pierrot-Deseilligny, Paris: Using saccades to probe different forms of memoryChristopher Kennard, London: Role of the supplementary eye fields in countermanding saccadesMasud Husain, London: Using eye movements to probe shifts of instruction setGraham Barnes, Manchester: Using smooth tracking movements to probe predictionR. John Leigh, Cleveland, Ohio: Eye movements: The meaning of it all (Epilogue)