Using Eye Movements as an Experimental Probe of Brain Function
A Symposium in Honor of Jean Büttner-EnneverEdited by
- R. Leigh, Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA
- Christopher Kennard, Academic Unit of Neuroscience, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK
This volume of Progress in Brain Research is based on the proceedings of a conference, "Using Eye Movements as an Experimental Probe of Brain Function," held at the Charing Cross Hospital Campus of Imperial College London, UK on 5th -6th December, 2007 to honor Professor Jean Büttner-Ennever. With 87 contributions from international experts both basic scientists and clinicians the volume provides many examples of how eye movements can be used to address a broad range of research questions. Section 1 focuses on extraocular muscle, highlighting new concepts of proprioceptive control that involve even the cerebral cortex. Section 2 comprises structural, physiological, pharmacological, and computational aspects of brainstem mechanisms, and illustrates implications for disorders as diverse as opsoclonus, and congenital scoliosis with gaze palsy. Section 3 addresses how the cerebellum transforms neural signals into motor commands, and how disease of such mechanisms may lead to ataxia and disorders such as oculopalatal tremor. Section 4 deals with sensory-motor processing of visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and auditory inputs, such as are required for navigation, and gait. Section 5 illustrates how eye movements, used in conjunction with single-unit electrophysiology, functional imaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and lesion studies have illuminated cognitive processes, including memory, prediction, and even free will. Section 6 includes 18 papers dealing with disorders ranging from congenital to acquired forms of nystagmus, genetic and degenerative neurological disorders, and treatments for nystagmus and motion sickness.
Neuroscientists, neurologists, opthalmologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and visual sciences.
Progress in Brain Research
Hardbound, 652 Pages
Published: September 2008
- Section 1: Using Novel Techniques to Define the Neural Substrate for Eye Movements Jean Büttner-Ennever, Munich: Re-mapping the oculomotor systemJoseph Demer, Los Angeles: Using high-definition MRI to re-define the mechanics of eye rotationsMichael Goldberg, New York: The cortical representation of oculomotor proprioceptionDavid Zee, Baltimore: How new knowledge of the anatomy of the eye muscles and their innervation translates into improved treatment of patients with ocular motor palsiesPaul Knox, Liverpool: Testing the influences of extraocular proprioception in humans James Sharpe, Toronto: Reinterpreting palsies of the ocular motor nerves Dominik Straumann: New insights into trochlear nerve palsyPaul May: Anatomical insights into peripheral gaze controlLouis Dell'Osso: How disrupting ocular proprioception can be therapy for congenital nsyatgmusSection 2: New Insights into Brainstem Generation of Ocular Motor CommandsAnja Horn, Munich: New insights into the circuitry and pharmacology of the brainstem reticular formationEdward Keller, San Francisco: Using multiple electrode arrays to map moving fields of neural activity in the superior colliculusPaul Gamlin, Birmingham: Synthesis of vergence control by brainstem circuitsHolger Rambold, Lübeck: Disturbances of vergence and saccadic eye movements by human brainstem lesionsChristoph Helmchen, Luebeck: Understanding how the cerebellar disease could cause saccadic oscillationsStefano Ramat, Pavia: A brainstem network that accounts for abnormal saccadesMark Gibson, Belfast: Human saccadic disorders and their brainstem mechanismsRichard Clement: A black-box approach to saccadic disordersSection 3: Using Eye Movements as an Index of Transformation of Signals by the CerebellumStephen Highstein, St. Louis: How the cerebellar transforms sensory inputs into motor commandsAlbert Fuchs, Seattle: How visual and motor signals interact in the cerebellumJohn Stahl, Cleveland: How mutant mice with calcium channel defects provide insight into the cerebellar role in balanceMichael Strupp, Munich: How knowledge about calcium channel disorders translates into treatment of human cerebellar diseaseBernard Cohen, New York: Cerebellar governance of vestibular mechanismsMark Walker, Baltimore: Influence of cerebellar nodulus on translational vestibulo-ocular reflexUlrich Büttner, Munich: Control of smooth-pursuit eye movements by cerebellumRobert McCrea, Chicago: Influence of cerebellum on combined eye-head trackingAdolfo Bronstein, London: Degenerative disorders that affect the cerebellar control of eye movementsSection 3: Using Eye Movements as a Probe of Sensory-Motor ProcessingFrederick Miles, Bethesda: How the brain uses visual motion as we move through the environmentPeter Hoffmann: How motion signals are encoded in visual areasMichael Mustari, Atlanta: How disturbed maturation of visual motion processing leads to nystagmus in infancyThomas Brandt: How vestibular and visual inputs may be abnormally processed in cerebral cortexRichard Abadi, Manchester: Visual perceptions during ocular oscillationsMichael Gresty, London: Self-motion, gaze control and visual perceptionBernhard Hess, Zurich: Understanding interactions between responses to head rotations and translationsMichael Halmagyi, Sydney: Probing otolith-ocular reflexes using novel stimuli in humansSergei Yakushin, New York: How visual inputs from subcortical pathways influence perception of self-motionSection 4: Using Eye Movements as a Probe of Cognition James Lynch, Jackson: Concepts of the contribution of cerebral cortex based on new anatomical findings Kikuro Fukushima, Sapporo: Prediction, eye movements, and the frontal lobesRene Müri, Bern: Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe decision-making and memory Parashkev Nachev, London: Using functional imaging to during conflict resolution and free choiceCharles Pierrot-Deseilligny, Paris: Using saccades to probe different forms of memoryChristopher Kennard, London: Role of the supplementary eye fields in countermanding saccadesMasud Husain, London: Using eye movements to probe shifts of instruction setGraham Barnes, Manchester: Using smooth tracking movements to probe predictionR. John Leigh, Cleveland, Ohio: Eye movements: The meaning of it all (Epilogue)