Unit Operations in Environmental Engineering

Edited by

  • Robert Noyes, Noyes Publications


  • Robert Noyes, Noyes Publications

This book discusses the practical aspects of environmental technology organized into eight chapters relating to unit operations as follows: 1. Biological Technology2. Chemical Technology3. Containment and Barrier Technology4. Immobilization Technology5. Membrane Technology6. Physical Technology7. Radiation and Electrical Technology8. Thermal Destruction TechnologyTraditional technologies have been included, as well as those that can be considered innovative and emerging. The traditional approaches have been the most successful, as contractors are careful about bidding on some of the newer technologies. However, as regulatory requirements increase, markets will open for the innovative and emerging processes. There will be increasing pressure to break down complex waste streams, with each subsequent stream demanding separate treatment. In addition, a number of technologies have been developed by combining processes directly, or in a treatment train, and these developments are expected to assume increasing importance. However, such concerns as uncertainties due to liability, regulatory approval, price competition, and client approval have limited the application of some of these newer technologies.
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Environmental engineers, researchers and scientists.


Book information

  • Published: December 1994
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1343-8

Table of Contents

1. Biological Technology 1.1 Waste Characteristics Affecting Performance (WCAPs) 1.2 Design and Operating Parameters 1.3 Aerobic Processes 1.4 Anaerobic Processes 1.5 Biological Waste Treatment 1.6 Bioremediation 1.7 Metals Removal 1.8 Biofiltration/Bioscrubbing 1.9 Bioconversion References2. Chemical Technology 2.1 Acid and Alkaline Leaching 2.2 Chelation 2.3 Dehalogenation 2.4 Hydrolysis 2.5 Ion Exchange 2.6 Neutralization 2.7 Oxidation 2.8 Precipitation 2.9 Pyrometallurical Processes 2.10 Reduction 2.11 Scrubbing/Absorption References3. Containment and Barrier Technology 3.1 Hazardous Waste Facilities 3.2 Municipal Waste Landfills 3.3 Containment and Barrier Systems 3.4 Structural Considerations 3.5 Natural Underground Barriers 3.6 Contaminated Dredged Material 3.7 Spill Containment References4. Immobilization Technology 4.1 Inorganic Based Systems 4.2 Organic Encapsulation Systems 4.3 Vitrification References5. Membrane Technology 5.1 Dialysis 5.2 Donnan Dialysis 5.3 Electrodialysis/Electrolytic Water Dissociation 5.4 Gas Separation 5.5 Liquid Membranes/Coupled and Facilitated Transport 5.6 Microfiltration 5.7 Pervaporation 5.8 Reverse Osmosis 5.9 Ultrafiltration/Nanofiltration 5.10 Formed-in-place Technology References6. Physical Technology 6.1 Absorption 6.2 Adsorption 6.3 Air Sparging 6.4 Condensation 6.5 Distillation 6.7 Extraction 6.8 Freezing Processes 6.9 Oil/Water Separation 6.10 Particulate Removal 6.11 Retorting 6.12 Soil Flushing 6.13 Soil Vapor Extraction 6.14 Soil Washing 6.15 Stripping 6.16 Suspended Solids Treatment/Dewatering 6.17 Thermal Desorption 6.18 Underground Delivery/Recovery Systems 6.19 Underground Injection and Disposal References7. Radiation and Electrical Technology 7.1 Acoustic/Ultrasonic Processes 7.2 Alternating Current Electrocoagulation 7.3 Combined Field Processes 7.4 Corona Destruction 7.5 Electrokinetics/Electro-osmosis 7.6 Electrolytic Processes 7.7 Electron Beam Irradiation 7.8 Electrophoresis 7.9 Gamma Radiation 7.10 Magnetic Separation 7.11 Non-thermal Plasmas 7.12 Microwave Treatment 7.13 Photolysis/Pyrolysis 7.14 Radio Frequency/Electrical Soil Heating 7.15 Solar Energy 7.16 Transmutation 7.17 Ultraviolet Radiation 7.18 X-ray Treatment 7.19 Silent Electric Discharge References8. Thermal Destruction Technology 8.1 Operating Information 8.2 Oxygen Enrichment 8.3 Waste Characteristics Affecting Performance 8.4 Design and Operating Parameters 8.5 Ash Generation and Disposal 8.6 Metal Partitioning 8.7 Chlorine Content 8.8 Slag Formation 8.9 Central Waste Incinerators 8.10 Mobile Incineration 8.11 Waste to Energy System 8.12 Air Pollution Control 8.13 Solids/Liquids Incineration Processes 8.14 Vapor Phase Destruction Processes References Index