Design and InstrumentationEdited By
- R.S. Sinha
This book presents the most up to date information relevant to the design and instrumentation of underground structures. The structure might be a tunnel, shaft, cavern, or pressure unit, or a combination thereof.Empirical, rational, numerical, convergence and confinement, and discontinuity analysis methods are treated comprehensively. Special chapters are devoted to underground structures in rock burst, swelling, squeezing, and seismic zones. Water control, instrumentation, and tunneling through soft ground are also treated extensively. Sections on the design of pressure tunnels, shafts, caverns, shotcreting, water control, and soft ground tunnels are informative and authoritative. Worked examples are included on the design of rock tunnels, soft ground tunnels, and the treatment of underground structures through difficult ground.Extensive references are provided, and figures, sketches and photographs aid presentation. Important tables on planning, and case histories, allow the reader to build confidence in his design of underground structures.The book will be beneficial to civil, structural, geotechnical and mining engineers, geologists, and planners and managers associated with the design and construction of underground structures.
Developments in Geotechnical Engineering
Published: July 1989
- Dedication. Preface. List of Contributors. Selected SI Conversion Factors. 1. Introduction. General. Common terms. Planning. Data collection. Shape. Size. Gradient. Horizontal curves. Vertical curves. Cover requirements. Tunnel hydraulics. Brief historical review. Highlights in the history of tunneling. Historical rates in tunneling. Famous American tunnels. Some famous tunnels around the world. Dimensions of some completed caverns. Classifications of underground structures. Code requirements. System analysis. Tolerances and surface finishes. Quantity estimates. Right-of-way. Size of staging area during construction. Protection of facilities. Lighting. Ventilation. References. 2. Design Methods. General. Functional requirements. Loading. Terzaghi's rock load. The ``Q'' system. Rock structure rating. Empirical design, rock mechanics rating. Evaluation of empirical design approaches. Rational methods of design. Flexibility and stiffness methods. Convergence-confinement method. NATM method. Discontinuity analysis method. Numerical methods. References. 3. Numerical Methods. Introduction. Computational methods: numerical methods and their alternatives. Applicability and use of numerical methods to tunnel engineering. Description and comparison of numerical methods. Mathematical treatment of numerical ``element methods''. Modeling for numerical computations. Modeling with the finite element method. Model versus measurement. References. 4. Rock Reinforcement. General. Rock reinforcement. Types of rock bolts. Rock reinforcement installation. Parameters of design. Design of rock reinforcement. Pull out test. Rock bolt instrumentations. Field observations. References. 5. Underground Structures in Rock. Introduction. Design of indeterminate structures. Shaft. Cavern. Pressure tunnels and shafts. Intersections. Multiple tunnels. Very large structures. References. 6. Design and Analysis of Underground Structures in Swelling and Squeezing Rocks. The phenomena. Some cases. Definition of swelling and squeezing mechanism. Laboratory testing for swelling and squeezing. Empirical and analytical methods for tunnels in swelling and squeezing rock. Design and construction of tunnels in swelling and squeezing ground. Conclusions. References. 7. Underground Structures in Rock Burst Zones. Introduction. Burst mechanism. Detection of rock burst-prone areas. Rock burst prevention. References. 8. Underground Structures Through Seismic Zones. Introduction. Seismic characteristics. Effect of ground motion on underground structures. Liquefaction of soils. Seismic design of underground structures. Analysis of underground structures. Available numerical models. References. 9. Shotcrete for Support of Underground Openings. General. Introduction. Rock loads. Construction of underground openings. Shotcrete design. Steel-fiber-reinforced shotcrete and microsilica. Practical shotcreting. Case history. Cost study. List of abbreviations. References. 10. Water Control. Introduction. Water control during construction. Minimizing and controlling water infiltration into completed tunnels. References. 11. Instrumentation Page. Introduction. Applications. Hardware. Tunnel instrumentation. Instrumentation case history. Summary and conclusions. References. 12. Tunneling in Soft Ground. Introduction. Contrast with ordinary design process. Types of ground. Tunnel excavations. The tunnel shield. Lining design. Design examples. References. Index.