Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

Synthesis, Properties and Applications


  • Olga A. Shenderova, International Technology Center, North Carolina, USA
  • Dieter M. Gruen, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL, USA

Ultrananocrystalline Diamond: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications is a unique practical reference handbook. Written by the leading experts worldwide it introduces the science of UNCD for both the R&D community and applications developers using UNCD in a diverse range of applications from macro to nanodevices, such as energy-saving ultra-low friction and wear coatings for mechanical pump seals and tools, high-performance MEMS/NEMS-based systems (e.g. in telecommunications), the next generation of high-definition flat panel displays, in-vivo biomedical implants, and biosensors.

This work brings together the basic science of nanoscale diamond structures, with detailed information on ultra-nanodiamond synthesis, properties, and applications. The book offers discussion on UNCD in its two forms, as a powder and as a chemical vapor deposited film. Also discussed are the superior mechanical, tribological, transport, electrochemical, and electron emission properties of UNCD for a wide range of applications including MEMS/ NEMS, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, electrochemical sensors, coatings for field emission arrays, photonic and RF switching, biosensors, and neural prostheses, etc.

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R&D community (academic and corporate) and engineers in the fields of nanotechnology, materials, thin films, deposition, biomedical engineering, optics, proteomics (protein chip technology in genomics), semiconductors, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and MEMS / NEMS.


Book information

  • Published: September 2012
  • ISBN: 978-1-4377-3465-2

Table of Contents

  1. Advances in synthesis and processing
  2. I.1 Synthesis of UNCD films

    I.1.1 Advances in Synthesis of UNCD and NCD films

    I.1.2 Insight on Nucleation of UNCD films

    I.1.3 Growth of n-Type UNCD

    I.2 Synthesis and Processing of Nanodiamond particles (Danilenko or Dolmatov)

    I.2.1 New methods of Nanodiamond synthesis

    I.2.2 New approaches in synthesis of detonation ND

    I.2.3 Advances in detonation ND deagglomeration and fractionation

    I.2.3.1 Deagglomeration of DND to primary particle sizes

    I.2.3.2 Fractionation of ND into narrow size distribution fractions

    I.2.4 Purification of detonation ND

    I.2.4.1 Purification from incombustible impurities

    I.2.4.2 Deep purification of DND from non-diamond carbon

  3. Advances in surface functionalization (Krueger? Hammers?)

    II.1 Achievements in uniformity of surface groups on DND

    II.2 Demonstration of functionalization of DND with a variety of new surface groups

    II.3 Demonstration of bioconjugation of DND and UNCD\NCD films

    II.4 Functionalization of onion-like carbon

    II.5 Demonstration of formation of hybrid structures of DND and UNCD with other nanoscale materials

    II.6 Methods of incorporation of DND into polymers matrixes and sol-gels

  5. Advances in nanodiamond characterization and new insights into the structure of UNCD and DND


III.1 Characterization of UNCD

       III.1.1 NEXAFS, etc.

       III.1.2 Charge Carriers

       III.1.3 Nano-indentation

       III.1.4 Laser Ablation

III.2 Characterization of ND particles

III.2.1 Doping of ND particles (Shenderova)

  • Studies on N state in ND particles (EELS, EPR, NMR)
  • Studies of NV centers in DND
  • Atomistic modeling

III.2.3 In depth understanding of types of DND surface groups by TDMS (Koscheev)

  1. Advances in property measurements and emerging applications

IV.1 Properties and Applications of UNCD

 IV.1.1  Electrical

- Electronics of UNCD films

- Field Emission of UNCD films

 IV.1.2  Electrochemistry of UNCD films

 IV.1.3 Mechanical

- Friction and Wear of UNCD films

 IV.1.4   Thermal properties and thermoelectrics

  IV.1.5   MEMS and Lithography of UNCD films

  IV.1.6   Bioapplications of UNCD films

IV.2 Properties and Applications of ND particles


IV.2.1 Optical properties and applications of ND particles (Zvyagin, Plahotnik, Rabeu)

    • Photoluminescence from 5-20nm HPHT ND (Taiwan)
    • Photoluminescence from DND - NV centers
    • Photoluminescence due to surface groups and shells
    • Formation of photonic crystals from DND
    • Quantum magnetometry and quantum computing


IV. 2.2 Electrochemistry of DND (Holt)

IV. 2.3 Demonstrations of enhanced properties of ND- polymer composites (Mochalin)

IV. 2.4 Advances in nanolubricants (Ivanov)

IV. 2.5 Absence of toxicity of DND (Schrand)

IV. 2.6 Nanodiamond particles for Nanomedicine (Dean Ho)