Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

Synthesis, Properties, and Applications


  • Olga A. Shenderova, International Technology Center, North Carolina, USA
  • Dieter M. Gruen, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL, USA

Ultrananocrystalline Diamond: Syntheses, Properties, and Applications is a unique practical reference handbook that brings together the basic science of nanoscale carbon structures, particularly its diamond phase, with detailed information on nanodiamond synthesis, properties, and applications. Here you will learn about UNCD in its two forms, as a dispersed powder made by detonation techniques and as a chemical vapor deposited film. You will also learn about the superior mechanical, tribological, transport, electrochemical, and electron emission properties of UNCD for a wide range of applications including MEMS, NEMS, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, electrochemical sensors, coatings for field emission arrays, photonic and RF switching, biosensors, and neural prostheses, and more. This ôEverything about Ultra-nanocrystalline Diamondö book with 16 chapters is written by leading experts worldwide. It is for everyone who researches carbon nanostructures, everyone who produces them, everyone who characterizes them, and everyone who builds devices using them.
View full description


International researchers and engineers in nanotechnology, materials, thin films, deposition, optics, proteomics (protein chip technology in genomics); semiconductors, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, MEMS, NEMS industries and academia.


Book information

  • Published: August 2006
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1524-1

Table of Contents

Part 1. Overview: Naturally Occurring UNCD and Laboratory Synthesis1. Carbon Family at the Nanoscale 1.1 Historical Overview1.2 Nanocarbon Classification1.3 Exotic Nanocarbons2. Extraterrestrial Nanodiamonds in the Cosmos 2.1 Stellar Nucleosynthesis and Presolar Stardust 2.2 Discovery and Identification of Presolar Minerals 2.3 Origins of Meteoritic Nanodiamonds 2.4 Isotopic Compositions of Meteoritic Nanodiamonds: Stellar Sources 2.5 Microstructure of Meteoritic Nanodiamonds: Formation Mechanisms 2.6 Noble Gas and N Content in Meteoritic Nanodiamonds: Nebular Processes 2.7 Nanodiamonds in Interplanetary Dust Particles: Insights on Solar Nebula Evolution Summary of Experimental Data 2.9 The New Astronomy3. Types of Nanocrystalline Diamond 3.1 Nanodiamonds: Shapes 3.2 Types of Nanodiamond and Methods of Their Synthesis 3.3 ConclusionPart 2. Stability of Nanodiamond4. Stability of Nanodiamond 4.1 Nanocarbon Phase Diagrams 4.2 Theoretical Studies of the Relative Phase Stability of Nanocarbons 4.3 Morphologies 4.4 ConclusionsPart 3. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films and Related Materials5. Electron Transport and the Potential of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond as a Thermoelectric Material 5.1 Characterization of n-type Conductivity in UNCD Films 5.2 Applications of n-type UNCD Films 5.3 Electronic Structure of UNCD Grain Boundaries 5.4 UNCD and Carbon Nanotube/UNCD Composites as Potential High-efficiency, High-temperature Thermoelectric Materials 5.5 Summary6. Plasma Assisted Synthesis: Plasma Experimental Diagnostics and Modeling 6.1 Experimental Details 6.2 Fundamentals of Plasma Diagnostics 6.3 Investigations of Typical NCD Deposition Conditions 6.4 Investigations of Ar/H2/CH4 Microwave Discharges with the Plasma Thermochemical Model 6.5 General Conclusion7. Nanodiamond Deposition from Energetic Species: Characterization and Formation Mechanism 7.1 The Deposition System and Deposition Parameters 7.2 Evolution and Properties of the Films Studied by NEXAFS: Coordination and Orientation 7.3 Phase Composition of the Films as Reflected by Raman Spectroscopy 7.4 Crystalline Structure of the Films by XRD 7.5 Morphological Evolution of the Films by AFM 7.6 Surface and Grain Boundary Phase Composition Studied by EELS 7.7 Hydrogen Content in the Films by SIMS and ERD 7.8 Hydrogen Bonding Configuration in the Nanodiamond Films Studied by HREELS 7.9 Density Evolution of the Films Examined by XRR 7.10 Visualization and Evolution of the Films Studied by HR TEM 7.11 Formation Mechanism of the Nanodiamond Film Deposited from Energetic Species 7.12 Summary8. Theoretical Studies of UNCD Synthesis 8.1 Computational Methodologies 8.2 Carbon Dimer Growth Mechanisms on the (110) Face of Diamond 8.3 Carbon Dimer Growth Mechanisms on the (100) Surface of Diamond 8.4 Electronic Structure of UNCD 8.5 Electronic Structure of Doped UNCD9. Mechanical and Tribological Properties and MEMS Fabrication 9.1 The Material 9.2 Experimental Technique 9.3 Experimental Results 9.4 Fractographic Analysis 9.5 Theoretical Strength 9.6 ConclusionsPart 4. UNCD Particles of Detonation Origin10. History of UDD11. Synthesis and Post-Synthesis Treatment of Detonation Nanodiamond 11.1 Industrial Technologies of Detonation Synthesis of UNCD 11.2 Post-synthesis Purification and Modification12. Characterization and Physical Properties of UNCD Particles 12.1 Methods for Characterization of UNCD Particles 12.2 The Structure of UNCD Clusters and the Aggregation Problem 12.3 Mechanical Properties 12.4 Optical Properties 12.5 Electronic Properties13. Diamond Phase Transitions at Nanoscale 13.1 Stability of Nanocarbons 13.2 Surface Chemistry: Stability of Surface Species 13.3 Kinetics of Diamond Graphitization 13.4 Mechanism of Diamond Graphitization 13.5 Catalytic Graphitization of NDs in the Presence of Metal Clusters 13.6 Graphitization of NDs in the Presence of Oxygen- and Hydrogen-containing Gases 13.7 Properties of ND Annealing Products: OLC, sp2/sp3 Nanocomposites 13.8 Conclusion14. Applications of Detonation Nanodiamond 14.1 Electrochemical Coatings 14.2 Polymer Compositions and Antifriction Coatings 14.3 Polishing 14.4 Oils and Lubricants 14.5 Diamond Sinters and Compacts 14.6 Bioactivity of UNCD Particles 14.7 Other Technological Applications of UNCD Particles15. Nanodiamond: Designing the Bio-Platform 15.1 Functionalization of ND with Heteroatoms and Chemical Groups 15.2 Modification with Nucleic Acids 15.3 Interaction with Proteins 15.4 Application in Biosensors and Medicine 15.5 Biocompatibility of ND 15.6 Conclusion16. History of Russian Patents on Detonation Nanodiamonds 16.1 Patents on Methods of DND Synthesis 16.2 Patents on Post-synthesis Treatments 16.3 Patents on Composition of Matter16.4 Patents on Applications16.5 Conclusion