Tufted Carpet

Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes and Processes


  • Von Moody, Auburn University
  • Howard L. Needles

This book combines Von Moody's original work and research in the carpet industry with the well respected 1986 textile source book, Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes, and Processes: A Concise Guide, by Howard L. Needles to produce a unique practical guide on all aspects of the preparation, manufacture, and performance of carpet. It addresses the structure and properties of fiber, carpet construction, coatings, dyes, finishes, performance, and recycling, among other topics. This volume is an indispensable reference for all practitioners in the carpet industry.
View full description


Professionals and technicians throughout the entire carpet industry (and suppliers of the industry as well) will find this book invaluable to their activities.


Book information

  • Published: September 2004
  • ISBN: 978-1-884207-99-0

Table of Contents

Part 1: Introduction to Carpet Fiber1. Fiber Theory and Formation1.1 FIBER CLASSIFICATION1.2 FIBER PROPERTIES1.2.1 Primary Properties1.2.2 Secondary Properties1.2.3 Primary Fiber Properties from an Engineering Perspective1.3 FIBER FORMATION AND MORPHOLOGY1.3.1 Polymer Formation1.3.2 Fiber Spinning 1.3.3 Fiber Drawing and Morphology1.3.4 Bulking and Texturizing1.3.5 Staple Formation1.4 STRUCTURE PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS 2. Fiber Indentification and Characterization2.1 FIBER IDENTIFICATION2.1.1 Microscopic Identification2.1.2 Solubility2.1.3 Heating and Burning Characteristics2.1.4 Density or Specific Gravity2.1.5 Staining2.2 STRUCTURAL, PHYSICAL, and CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION2.2.1 Optical and Electron Microscopy2.2.2 Elemental and End-Group Analysis2.2.3 Infrared Spectroscopy2.2.4 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy2.2.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy2.2.6 X-Ray Diffraction2.2.7 Thermal Analysis2.2.8 Molecular Weight Determination2.2.9 Mechanical and Tensile Property Measurements2.2.10 Specific Gravity2.2.11 Environmental Properties2.2.12 Chemical Properties2.3 END-USE PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION2.3.1 Characteristics Related to Identity, Aesthetics and Comfort2.3.2 Characteristics Related to Durability and Wear2.3.3 Physical and Chemical Characteristics 3. Major Fiber and Their Properties3.1 NYLON 6 and NYLON 6,6 FIBERS3.1.1 Structural Properties3.1.2 Effect of Single-Step Versus Two-Step Production of Nylon3.1.3 Physical Properties3.1.4 Chemical Properties3.1.5 Nylon End-Use Properties3.2 POLYESTER FIBERS3.2.1 Structural Properties3.2.2 Physical Properties3.2.3 Chemical Properties3.2.4 Polyester End-Use Properties3.3 ACRYLIC FIBERS3.3.1 Structural Properties3.3.2 Physical Properties3.3.3 Chemical Properties3.3.4 Acrylic End-Use Properties3.4 MODACRYLIC FIBERS3.4.1 Structural Properties3.4.2 Physical Properties3.4.3 Chemical Properties3.4.4 Modacrylic End-Use Properties3.5 POLYOLEFIN FIBERS3.5.1 Polyethylene and Polypropylene3.5.2 Structural Properties3.5.3 Physical Properties3.5.4 Chemical Properties3.5.5 Polyolefin End-Use Properties3.6 WOOL3.6.1 Structural Properties3.6.2 Physical Properties3.6.3 Chemical Properties3.6.4 Wool End-Use PropertiesPart 2: Carpet Making4. Yarn Formation4.1 WOOLEN AND WORSTED SYSTEMS4.2 STAPLE SYSTEMS4.3 FILAMENT SYSTEMS5. Primary and Secondary Backing Construction5.1 WOVEN5.1.1 Woven Primary or Secondary Backing Manufacture5.1.2 Textile Substrate Formation5.1.3 Weaving5.1.4 Shedding Mechanism5.1.5 Fill Insertion5.2 NONWOVEN5.2.1 Nonwoven Primary or Secondary Backing Formation5.2.2 Mechanical Bonding or Entanglement of Nonwovens5.2.3 Stitching or Stitch Bonding5.2.4 Self Bonding5.2.5 Adhesive Bonding5.3 COMPOSITE FORMATION5.4 NEW TUFTING PRIMARY BACKINGS6. Carpet Construction6.1 DESCRIPTION OF LAYERS OF PILE CARPET6.1.1 Primary Backings6.1.2 Loop Pile Created by Tufting6.1.3 Shearing6.1.4 Secondary Backing6.2 FINISHINGPart 3: Coatings, Raw Materials, and Their Processes7. Latex Coatings7.1 LATEX COMPOUNDS7.1.1 Filler7.1.2 Surfactants7.1.3 Thickeners7.1.4 Water7.1.5 Flame Retardants7.1.6 Miscellaneous7.2 EXAMPLES OF LATEX COMPOUNDS7.3 EFFECT OF FILLER ON LATEX COATED CARPET7.4 EFFECT OF DENIER ON TUFTBIND7.5 FLAME RETARDANCY7.6 SUMMARYPolyurethane Coating8.1 POLYURETHANE RAW MATERIALS AND BASIC CHEMISTRY8.2 MECHANICALLY FROTHED POLYURETHANE8.3 WATER-BLOWN POLYURETHANECushion9.1 RESIDENTIAL9.2 COMMERCIAL9.3 FOAM PERFORMANCE9.4 CUSHIONS AND PADS10. Polyvinyl Chloride Plastisol Coating10.1 RAW MATERIALS10.1.1 Dispersion Resin10.1.2 Blending Resin10.1.3 Plasticizer10.1.4 Stabilizers10.1.5 Thixotropic Agents10.1.6 Surfactants10.1.7 Pigments10.1.8 Fillers 10.1.9 Lubricants10.1.10 Blowing Agents10.1.11 Solvents or Diluents10.2 TROUBLESHOOTING10.3 FORMULATION10.4 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY10.5 FLEXIBILITY10.6 INDENTATION10.7 CUTTING CARPET INTO TILE10.8 IMPERMEABILITY10.9 SUMMARY 11. Hot Melt Coating11.1 DISCUSSION OF HOT MELTS11.2 INGREDIENTS11.2.1 Polymers11.2.2 Resins11.2.3 Wax11.2.4 Filler11.2.5 Oils11.2.6 Antioxidants11.2.7 Flame Retardants11.3 HOT MELT COATING PROCESS11.4 COMPOUNDING11.5 EXAMPLES OF HOT MELT COATING COMPOUNDS 12. Extrusion Coating Technology12.1 EXTRUSION COATING PROCESS12.2 THE EXTRUDER12.3 EXTRUDER DIE12.4 DOWNSTREAM EQUIPMENT12.5 POLYMERS AND COMPOUNDS12.6 EXAMPLES OF EXTRUSION COATING COMPOUNDS 13. Carpet Tile Coatings and Reinforcements13.1 COATING SYSTEMS FOR CARPET TILE13.1.1 Polyurethane13.1.2 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)13.1.3 Hot Melt13.1.4 Extrusion13.2 FIBERGLASS REINFORCEMENT13.3 SUMMARY Part 4: Carpet Enhancers14. Antimicrobial Agents14.1 USE14.2 BACTERIAL SOURCES AND CONDITIONS FAVORABLE TO GROWTH14.3 ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT SELECTION AND CONSIDERATION14.4 RESIDENTIAL APPLICATIONS14.5 PROOF OF CLAIMS14.6 MICROORGANISM STRUCTURE14.7 TYPES OF ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENTS14.8 VARIOUS ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENTS14.9 TESTING14.10 PLACEMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS14.11 SUMMARY 15. Color, Dyes, Dyeing, and Printing15.1 COLOR THEORY15.1.1 The Munsell System15.1.2 Additive and Subractive Systems15.1.3 Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage System15.2 DYES AND DYE CLASSIFICATION15.2.1 Dyes Containing Anionic Functional Groups15.2.2 Dyes Containing Cationion Groups (Basic Dyes)15.2.3 Special Colorant Classes15.2.4 Dyeing of Blends15.3 APPLICATION METHODS AND FACTORS AFFECTING DYEING15.3.1 Dyeing Methods15.3.2 Printing Techniques15.3.3 Physical Factors Affecting Dyeing15.3.4 Chemical Reagents15.4 DYES APPLIED TO FIBER CLASSES15.4.1 Dyes for Protein Fibers15.4.2 Dyes for Polyamide Fibers15.4.3 Dyes for Polyester Fibers15.4.4 Dyes for Acrylic Fibers15.4.5 Dyes for Polyolefin Fibers 16. Stain Blockers and Fluorochemicals16.1 BACKGROUND16.2 STAIN RESIST CHEMICALS FOR NYLON CARPET16.3 TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY16.4 FLUOROCHEMICALS16.5 STAIN RESISTANCE TECHNOLOGY16.6 APPLICATION OF STAIN RESIST CHEMICALS16.6.1 Basic Information16.6.2 Development of the Foam Application16.7 EXAMPLES OF STAIN RESISTANT APPLICATIONS16.7.1 Batch Exhaust16.7.2 Continuous Exhaust16.7.3 Use in Drying Only16.7.4 Foam Application16.7.5 Exhaustion of Stain Blocker on Nylon16.8 PERFORMANCE TESTING Part 5: Performance, Cleaning, and Recycling17. Performance Issues17.1 STANDARDS AND TESTS17.1.1 Standards and Tests for Carpets17.1.2 Standards and Tests for Backing17.2 APPEARANCE RETENTION17.3 FLAMMABILITY17.3.1 Pill Test17.3.2 Discussion of Pill Test Results17.3.3 Radiant Panel Test17.4 SOUND ABSORPTION17.4.1 Testing Terminology17.4.2 Testing of Carpet17.4.3 Impact Sound Insulation17.5 OTHER PERFORMANCE ISSUES17.5.1 Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) Yellowing17.5.2 Discoloration from Stain Blockers17.5.3 Pile Crush or Matting17.5.4 Shading17.5.5 Pilling17.5.6 Fuzzing17.5.7 Delamination or Backing Separation17.5.8 Indentation17.5.9 Static17.5.10 Grinning 18. Maintenance and Cleaning18.1 CLEANING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT18.2 REMOVAL OF STAINS AND CLEANING HINTS18.3 CLEANING STAINS AND SPILLS18.3.1 Common Spill Removal 19. Recycling19.1 DISCUSSION19.2 USES19.2.1 Plastic Lumber19.2.2 Concrete Reinforcement19.2.3 Asphalt Modification19.2.4 Use in Soil19.3 RECOVERY PROCESSES19.3.1 Individual Carpet Component Separation19.3.2 Compatiblization of Carpet Components19.3.3 Depolymerization19.4 EXAMPLES OF CARPET RECYCLING19.4.1 Carpet Used for Energy19.4.2 Company Specific Examples of Recycli