Troubleshooting Windows 2000 TCP/IP


  • . Syngress

TCP/IP is a set of proposals developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network. Some of the largest networks today are built on the TPC/IP protocol suite. Understanding how TCP/IP is "supposed" to work is not enough for today's network managers. In this book, readers will learn to prevent, detect, troubleshoot and correct TCP/IP network problems. By using products such as distributed sniffers, field metering tools and protocol analyses, network managers can learn a lot about what is going on in (or wrong in) an internetwork and be able to troubleshoot a live TPC/IP network. This book focuses specifically on identifying problem areas, including identifying and correcting protocol errors, DNS route problems, application faults and slow response times.Syngress have sold over 700,000 Microsoft and Cisco certification guides in the last two years. Most of the administrators buying these will be interested in this book.
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Book information

  • Published: March 2000
  • Imprint: SYNGRESS
  • ISBN: 978-1-928994-11-4

Table of Contents

PrefaceChapter 1: TCP/IP Overview Introduction TCP/IP's "Net" Worth More Power, More Flexibility-and More Potential for Problems What's Ahead in This Chapter TCP/IP: Where It Came From, and Where It's Going History of the TCP/IP Protocols The Future of TCP/IP Networking Models The Purpose of the Models The ISO OSI Model The DoD Model The Microsoft Windows 2000 Networking Model A Family of Protocols: The TCP/IP Suite Application Layer Protocols Transport Layer Protocols Network Layer Protocols TCP/IP Utilities Basic Network Design Planning as Preventative Medicine Testing and Implementation Summary FAQsChapter 2: Setting up a Windows 2000 TCP/IP Network Introduction Designing a New Windows 2000 TCP/IP Network The Planning Team Planning the Hardware Configurations Planning the Physical Layout Planning for Sites Planning the Namespace Planning the Addressing Scheme Installing and Configuring Windows 2000 TCP/IP Installing TCP/IP on a Windows 2000 Computer Upgrading to Windows 2000 from Windows NT 4.0 The Windows NT Domain Models Other Pre-Upgrade Issues Common Upgrade Problems Migrating to Windows 2000 from Novell NetWare Understanding the NetWare Implementation of TCP/IP Premigration Issues Common Migration Problems Migrating to Windows 2000 from UNIX Understanding the UNIX Implementation of TCP/IP Peaceful Coexistence: The Hybrid Network Environment NetWare Interoperability UNIX Interoperability Interoperability with IBM Mainframe Networks Summary FAQsChapter 3: General Windows 2000 TCP/IP Troubleshooting Guidelines Introduction The Ten Commandments of Troubleshooting 1: Know Thy Network 2: Use the Tools of the Trade 3: Take It One Change at a Time 4: Isolate the Problem 5: Recreate the Problem 6: Don't Overlook the Obvious 7: Try the Easy Way First 8: Document What You Do 9: Practice the Art of Patience 10: Seek Help from Others Windows 2000 Troubleshooting Resources Microsoft Documentation Third-Party Documentation General Troubleshooting Models Differential Diagnosis Model SARA Model Putting the Models to Work for You The Information-Gathering Phase Questions to Ask Log Files Tools of the Trade The Problem Isolation Phase Organizing and Analyzing the Information Setting Priorities Taking Corrective Measures One Change at a Time Order of Implementation Monitoring Results Using Forms and Check lists Summary FAQsChapter 4: Windows 2000 TCP/IP Internals Introduction RFC Compliance Enhancements to the TCP/IP Stack in Windows 2000 RFC 1323: TCP Extensions for High Performance RFC 2018: SACK (Selective Acknowledgment) RFC 1577: IP over ATM RFC 2001: TCP Fast Retransmit RFCs 2211 and 2212: Quality of Service RFC 2205: Resource Reservation Protocol IPSec NDIS. Inside the Windows 2000 Internet Protocol (IP) Classless Inter-Domain Routing Multihoming IP Multicasting Duplicate IP Address Detection Inside the Windows 2000 Transport Protocols (TCP and UDP) Transmission Control Protocol User Datagram Protocol Understanding TCP/IP Registry Settings Using the Registry Editing Tools Configuring TCP/IP Behavior through the Registry Registry Settings that Should Not Be Edited Summary FAQsChapter 5: Using Network Monitoring and Troubleshooting Tools in Windows 2000 Introduction Windows 2000 Monitoring Tools Basic Monitoring Guidelines Performance Logs and Alerts Network Monitor Event Viewer Using TCP/IP Utilities PING nslookup PATHPING tracert ARP ipconfig netstat and nbtstat netdiag SNMP Network Management Programs Microsoft Systems Management Server NTManage Summary FAQsChapter 6: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 NetBIOS Name Resolution Problems Introduction to Name Resolution Services NetBIOS Name Resolution Windows 2000 Methods of NetBIOS Name Resolution The Order of NetBIOS Resolution The Windows 2000 Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) NetBIOS Name Registration NetBIOS Name Query Request NetBIOS Name Release WINS Proxy Agents WINS Configuration Issues Static Mappings WINS Replication WINS Partner Autodiscovery WINS Network Topologies Windows 2000 WINS Enhancements Is WINS Ever Going to Go Away? Troubleshooting Common NetBIOS Communication Problems Summary Don't Multihome Your WINS Server Use a WINS Proxy Agent on Segments with non-WINS Clients Avoid Static Records in the WINS Database Define Replication Partners Based on Link Factors Avoid Split Registration Use the Hub and Spoke Model in Multisite Environments Configure DNS Servers to Resolve NetBIOS Names Don't Multihome Master Browsers Use Manual Tombstoning Instead of Deleting Records Consider the Ramifications before Disabling NetBT FAQsChapter 7: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 DNS Problems Introduction The Difference between NetBIOS Names and Host Names Flat Versus Hierarchical Namespace NetBIOS on a TCP/IP Network Characteristics of Host Names The Domain Name System A Hierarchical Naming System Fully Qualified Domain Names Host Name Resolution Name Resolution Sequence Sending the DNS Query to a DNS Server UNC Paths and DNS Queries Qualified versus Unqualified Names Host Name Resolution via WINS Lookups Naming Conventions and Issues Windows 2000 Support for RFC 2181 Domain Naming Schemes and Implementation Problems Same Intranet and Internet Domain Name Different Intranet and Internet Domain Names Corporate Mergers and Domain Management DNS Zone Design and Troubleshooting Standard Zones Zone Transfer Reverse Lookup Zones Active Directory Integrated Zones Zone Delegations Special Troubleshooting Issues with Windows 2000 DDNS Servers DNS Security and Internet Intruders Solving WINS Client Ambiguity with WINS Lookup Zones Interoperability Problems Troubleshooting Tools for Windows 2000 DDNS Servers nslookup ipconfig Event Viewer Network Monitor DNS Trace Logs Performance Summary FAQsChapter 8: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 IP Addressing Problems Introduction How IP Addressing Works Private versus Public Addresses How IP Addresses Are Used in Network Communications A Map for the Mail Carrier Putting It All Together Overview: IP Addressing Configuration Errors Duplicate IP Addresses Invalid IP Addresses DHCP Configuration Problems Common DHCP Problems Automatic Addressing (APIPA) Hardware Address Problems Troubleshooting Subnetting Problems Why Divide the Network? Subnets Subnet Masks Tricking IP Making the Mask Errors in Subnet Masking Summary FAQsChapter 9: Troubleshooting Remote Access in a Windows 2000 TCP/IP Network Introduction Overview of Windows 2000 Remote Access Services Types of Remote Access Establishing a Remote Access Connection The Remote Access Protocols Preventing Problems Related to the WAN Protocol Understanding Encapsulation Tools for Troubleshooting PPP Connections Troubleshooting Remote Access Configuration Problems Remote Access Server Problems Client Configuration Problems Troubleshooting Remote Access Policy Problems Troubleshooting NAT and ICS Configuration Problems The Difference between ICS and NAT Common NAT Configuration Problems Troubleshooting VPN Connectivity Problems The Tunneling Protocols Troubleshooting VPN Connections Summary FAQsChapter 10: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 Connectivity Problems at the Network Interface Level Introduction Problems with Network Interface Card Configuration The Role of the NIC Types of NICs Driver Issues Problems with Cable and Other Network Media Network Cable Specifications Cable Length Issues The Role of Network Connectivity Devices Understanding Layer 1 and 2 Connectivity Devices Understanding Upper-Layer Connectivity Devices Troubleshooting Layer 1 and 2 Connectivity Devices Problems with Repeaters and Hubs The 5-4-3 Rule Passive, Active, and Intelligent Hubs Problems with Bridges Performance Problems Network Monitoring Problems Selecting a Connectivity Device Summary FAQsChapter 11: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 Connectivity Problems at the Internetwork Level Introduction A Routing Example IP Routing Overview Routing Fundamentals Routing Interfaces Routing Tables Simple Routing Scenario The Windows 2000 Router Routing Protocols How Static Routing Works The Dynamic Routing Protocols Windows 2000 as an IP Router Installing Routing Protocols Windows 2000 Router Management Tools Router Configuration Preconfiguration Check List Configuring Windows 2000 Static IP Routing Configuring RIP for IP Configuring OSPF Windows 2000 Router Logging Troubleshooting Common Windows 2000 Routing Problems Troubleshooting Static Routing Troubleshooting RIP for IP Troubleshooting OSPF Resetting the Windows 2000 Router Summary FAQsChapter 12: Troubleshooting Selected Services on a Windows 2000 TCP/IP Network Introduction Troubleshooting IIS Problems Log Files Troubleshooting Web Server Problems Troubleshooting FTP Server Problems Troubleshooting NNTP Server Problems Using Event Viewer for NNTP Troubleshooting Common NNTP Problems Summary FAQsChapter 13: Windows 2000 TCP/IP Fast Track Introduction TCP/IP: What It Is (and Isn't) TCP/IP History and Future in a Nutshell Where TCP/IP Fits into the Networking Models The Members of the Suite Network Design and Planning Issues Design and Setup of a Windows 2000 Network Special Considerations for Windows 2000 Networks Special Considerations when Upgrading from NT 4.0 Special Considerations when Migrating from NetWare Special Considerations when Migrating from UNIX Hybrid Networks General Troubleshooting Guidelines Troubleshooting Resources Troubleshooting Models Information-Gathering Tips Organizing Information Forms and Check Lists Inside TCP/IP Windows 2000 Enhancements Inside IP Inside TCP and UDP TCP/IP Registry Settings Network Monitoring Tools Monitoring Guidelines Performance Logs and Alerts Network Monitor Event Viewer TCP/IP Utilities Name Resolution Problems WINS and NetBIOS Name Resolution DNS and Host Name Resolution IP Addressing Issues The IP Address How IP Addresses Are Assigned ARP Common IP Addressing Errors Subnetting Problems Remote Access Connectivity Remote Access Versus Remote Control Remote Access Links Remote Access Protocols RRAS Configuration Problems NAT and ICS Virtual Private Networking (VPN) The Network Interface Level Connectivity Devices The 5-4-3 Rule The 80/20 Rule Looping The Internetwork Level Routing Tables Features of the Windows 2000 Router Routing Protocols Windows 2000 Router Logging Selected Services Site Logging Web Server FTP Server NNTP Server SummaryAppendix A: TCP/IP Troubleshooting Secrets Lesser-Known Shortcuts Finding the Consoles Control the Index Server Windows 2000 Telnet Client and Server Under-Documented Features and Functions The FTP Command Set The nslookup Utility Using ipconfig Switches For Experts Only The Future of IP Communications IP Telephony Planning the Transition to IPv Securing IP: IPSecIndex