Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Supplement to Clinical Neurophysiology Series, Volume 56Edited by
- W. Paulus, University of Göttingen, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Gottingen, Germany
- F. Tergau
- M. A. Nitsche, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
- J. C. Rothwell, Sobell Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
- U. Ziemann, Clinic of Neurology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
- Mark Hallett, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
The interaction of human brain function with artificially induced intrinsic brain electricity has been the central topic of this symposium. Short electric currents in the brain can be induced pain free by pulsed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). With TMS applied in a repetitive mode (rTMS) succeeding pulses interact and may induce outlasting excitability alterations. At the other end of the spectrum transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can directly modulate membrane polarisation and firing rates of cortical neurons.
This symposium updates the knowledge of brain function gained by TMS and tDCS since the introduction of TMS in 1985. It represents a follow-up meeting of a first symposium held in Göttingen in 1998 and expands to recently developed areas of neuroimaging, neuropsychology and neural plasticity research using these techniques. TMS now has a definite place in neurological diagnostics in order to quantify alterations of conduction velocity or axonal loss of the pyramidal tract. More selective stimulation techniques in terms of coil design and pulse shape are currently developed. tDCS has regained interest in recent years after it could be shown that it definitely modulates cortical excitability. rTMS and tDCS after-effects can be shaped with concurrent drug applications. Several paired stimulation techniques allow obtaining after-effects of 24 hours and longer.
In addition, electric stimulation of the brain may be used as a therapeutic tool in neuropsychiatric diseases. Convincing areas of therapeutic applications of electric stimulation are deep brain stimulations for Parkinson's disease or dystonia. Non-invasive stimulation techniques would avoid invasive surgery and are approached in future as experimental therapeutic research. So far progress has been made in using rTMS in the treatment of depression, whereas the use of rTMS in other diseases like epilepsy is still experimental. Technical innovations are a prerequisite for the biological progress of this field. Interactive discussions of techniques, their application and objectives are expected in order to move forward this research.
Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
- Welcome Address. Greetings from Lutz Stratmann, Minister of Science and Culture in Lower Saxony. Summary of the Highlights of the Symposium. List of Contributors.
Section I. Methodology.
1. Background physics for magnetic stimulation (J. Ruohonen). 2. TMS and threshold hunting (F. Awiszus). 3. The triple stimulation technique to study corticospinal conduction (M.R. Magistris, K.M. Rösler). 4. Pulse configuration and rTMS efficacy: a review of clinical studies (M. Sommer, W. Paulus). 5. Interleaving fMRI and rTMS (D.E. Bohning, S. Denslow et al.). 6. Is functional magnetic resonance imaging capable of mapping transcranial magnetic cortex stimulation? (S. Bestmann, J. Baudewig et al.). 7. Applications of combined TMS-PET studies in clinical and basic research (H.R. Siebner, M. Peller, L. Lee).
Section II. Animal Studies.
8. A coil for magnetic stimulation of the macaque monkey brain (Y. Nonaka, T. Hayashi et al.). 9. Neurophysiological characterization of magnetic seizure therapy (MST) in nonhuman primates (S.H. Lisanby, T. Moscrip et al.). 10. rTMS as treatment strategy in psychiatric disorders - neurobiological concepts (M.E. Keck).
Section III. Motor Control.
11. Motor cortical and other cortical interneuronal networks that generate very high frequency waves (V.E. Amassian, M. Stewart). 12. Generation of I-waves in the human: spinal recordings (V. Di Lazzaro, A. Oliviero et al.). 13. Surround inhibition (M. Hallett). 14. Functional connectivity of the human premotor and motor cortex explored with TMS (T. Bäumer, J.C. Rothwell, A. Münchau). 15. Inhibitory control of acquired motor programmes in the human brain (C. Gerloff, F. Hummel). 16. Motor control in mirror movements: studies with transcranial magnetic stimulation (M. Cincotta, A. Borgheresi et al.). 17. Impact of interhemispheric inhibition on excitability of the non-lesioned motor cortex after acute stroke (L. Niehaus, M. Bajbouj, B.-U. Meyer). 18. Disruption of the neural correlates of working memory using high- and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a negative study (E.A. Feredoes, P.S. Sachdev, W. Wen). 19. Motor and phosphene thresholds: consequences of cortical anisotropy (T. Kammer, S. Beck et al.). 20. The organisation and re-organisation of human swallowing motor cortex (S. Hamdy). 21. Exploring paradoxical functional facilitation with TMS (H. Théoret, M. Kobayashi et al.). 22. Repetitive magnetic and functional electrical stimulation reduce spastic tone increase in patients with spinal cord injury (P. Krause, A. Straube). 23. Pharmacology of TMS (U. Ziemann). 24. Bihemispheric plasticity after acute hand deafferentation (K.J. Werhahn, J. Mortensen et al.). 25. Modulation of use-dependent plasticity by D-amphetamine (C.M. Bütefisch).
Section IV. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.
26. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (W. Paulus). 27. Modulation of cortical excitability by weak direct current stimulation - technical, safety and functional aspects (M.A. Nitsche, D. Liebetanz et al.). 28. Modulation of motor consolidation by external DC stimulation (N. Lang, M.A. Nitsche et al.). 29. Pharmacology of transcranial direct current stimulation: missing effect of riluzole (D. Liebetanz, M.A. Nitsche, W. Paulus).
Section V. Interaction with Perception and Cognition.
30.Transcranial magnetic and direct current stimulation of the visual cortex (A. Antal, M.A. Nitsche et al.). 31. Neural correlates of phosphene perception (I.G. Meister, J. Weidemann et al.). 32. The causal role of the prefrontal cortex in episodic memory as demonstrated with rTMS (C. Miniussi, S.F. Cappa et al.). 33. The parietal cortex in visual search: a visuomotor hypothesis (A. Ellison, M. Rushworth, V. Walsh). 34. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on slow cortical potentials (SCP) (A.A. Karim, T. Kammer et al.).
Section VI. Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases.
35. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in brainstem lesions and lesions of the cranial nerves (P.P. Urban). 36. Modulation of sensorimotor performances and cognition abilities induced by RPMS. Clinical and experimental investigations (A. Struppler, B. Angerer, P. Havel). 37. TMS in stroke (J. Liepert). 38. Cortical silent period is shortened in restless legs syndrome independently from circadian rhythm (K. Stiasny-Kolster, H. Haeskeet al.). 39. Repetitive magnetic stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain conditions (J.D. Rollnik, J. Däuperet al.). 40. Fluctuations of motor cortex excitability in pain syndromes (P. Schwenkreis, C. Maier, M. Tegenthoff). 41. Can epilepsies be improved by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation? (F. Tergau, D. Neumann et al.). 42. Prefrontal cortex stimulation as antidepressant treatment: mode of action and clinical effectiveness of rTMS (F. Padberg, B. Goldstein-Müller et al.). 43. Motor cortical excitability after electroconvulsive therapy in patients with major depressive disorder (M. Bajbouj, J. Gallinat et al.). 44. Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation and the cerebellum (K. Wessel).