Tracers in the Oil FieldBy
- B. Zemel, University of Texas at Austin, Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, Austin, TX, USA
This book is concerned with the application of tracers to a wide variety of oil field operations. It provides the necessary nuclear concepts and techniques which are basic to oil field tracer applications. Laboratory and field techniques are explained and illustrated as are the associated regulatory and safety aspects. Within the book, each area of oil field use is considered separately and specific applications of tracers discussed and relevant literature reviewed. The use of non-radioactive tracers is pointed out wherever it is applicable.
Due to the nature of this competitive industry, much research is poorly documented, thus Tracers in the Oil Field aims to make the technology more available to current users in the oil field.
Developments in Petroleum Science
Published: January 1995
- Preface. 1. Radioactivity Basics. Radioactivity. Interactions of radiation with matter. Sources of radioactive material. 2. Measurements and Applications. Radiation detection and measurement. Charge collection in gas counters. Counting systems. Scintillation detectors. Solid state ionization detectors. Neutron detectors. Count rate meters, multichannel analyzers, and scalers. Counting radioactive atoms. Useful nuclear procedures. Dosimetry. Licensing and control of radioactive material. 3. Interwell Water Tracers. Functions of a waterflooding tracer. Radioactively tagged tracers for waterfloods. Nonradioactively tagged tracers for waterfloods. Tracer sampling and analysis in the field. 4. Field Examples and Data Analysis. Field tracer reports. Volumetric analysis of field tracer data. 5. Unconventional Waterflood Tracing. Residual oil measurements by tracers. Observation wells. Interwell reactions. Flow through fractures. Downhole injection and sampling. 6. Interwell Gas Tracing. Gas tracers for oilfield use. Nonideal behavior of gas tracers. Field procedures. Field tracer tests. Steam tracing. Gas tracing in unconventional reservoirs. 7. Downhole Tracers. Fast neutron activation of tracers. Log-inject-log tracer procedures. Radioactive tracers for well treatment downhole. Other gamma-ray tracer methods. Production logging. Borehole processes. 8. Tracers in Facility Operations. Flow-rate measurement. Flow-rate applications. Flow regime in pipe and gathering lines. Underground gas storage. Oil, water, and gas separators. Erosion and corrosion. Scale monitoring and treatment. Pipeline leaks. Environmental problems. Appendix: Analytical Flow Model for Design and Analysis of Tracer Pulse Tests. Areal dilution from pattern geometry. Areal dilution by mixing effects. Tracer response from developed homogeneous patterns. Tracer flow in irregular and open patterns. Tracer response in layered reservoirs. Deconvolution of tracer breakthrough data. Design of tracer tests. Derivation of pattern breakthrough curves. Index.