Toxicology of Organophosphate & Carbamate Compounds

Edited by

  • Ramesh C. Gupta, DVM, MVSc, PhD, DABT, FACT, FACN, FATS, Professor and Head, Toxicology Department, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY, USA

This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden. Some OPs (nerve agents) have been used in chemical warfare and terrorist attacks, while some OPs and CMs have been recommended as therapeutic agents in human medicine as well as in veterinary medicine. Many chemicals of both classes are extremely toxic and lack selectivity, thus their inadvertent/accidental use continues to pose a threat to human and animal health, aquatic systems and wildlife. These anticholinesterase agents produce a variety of toxicological effects in target and nontarget organs. In light of this complexicity, this multi-authored book is written by the well known scientists from many countries. The book is organized into nine sections, with a total of 49 chapters, to provide in-depth knowledge on various aspects of OP and CM compounds, including their use, classification, mechanism-based toxicity, and prophylactic and therapeutic measurements. Several chapters are written with special emphasis to cover timely topics, such as chemical warfare agents, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, structure and function of cholinesterases, paraoxonase, carboxylesterases; developmental neurotoxicity, the intermediate syndrome, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and DNA damage/gene expression and carcinogenesis. Section-VI with 5 chapters is specifically devoted to risk assessment, and safety and regulatory guidelines for pesticides.
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Toxicologists, Pharmacologists, Biologists/Neurochemists, Physicians, and Libraries


Book information

  • Published: December 2005
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-088523-7


"This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden. ...The efforts of both editor and authors are highly praiseworthy because the text of the volume has been well organized giving appropriate tables, figures in depth and comprehensive manner, covering important and novel issues. Thus the volume provides a thorough knowledge in the field of OP and CMs and will be immensely useful not only to scientists and teachers but also an excellent addition to the libraries and research professionals in government, industry, regulators, decision makers and students who want to specialize in this field of specialization." - Prof P.K.Gupta, Adviser to WHO and Director TCS Inc., Bareilly, India for TOXICOLOGY INTERNATIONAL (June 2006)

Table of Contents

Foreword Section-I Uses, Abuses & Epidemiology1. Introduction2. Classification and Uses of Organophosphates and Carbamates3. Therapeutic Uses of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Neurodegenerative Diseases4. Co-administration of Memantine with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence5. Cholinesterase Inhibitors as Chemical Warfare Agents: Community Preparedness Guidelines6. Organophosphates and the Gulf War Syndrome7. The Bhopal Accident and Methyl Isocyanate Toxicity8. Global Epidemiology of Organophosphates and Carbamates PoisoningsSection-II Pharmacokinetics & Metabolism9. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides10. Metabolism of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides11. Interspecies Variation in Toxicity of Cholinesterase inhibitorsSection-III Esterases, Receptors, Mechanisms & Tolerance Development12. Structure and Function of Cholinesterases13. Cholinesterase Pharmacogenetics14. Methods for Measuring Cholinesterase Activities in Human Blood15. Interactions of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Compounds with Cholinesterases16. Structure, Function and Regulation of Carboxylesterases17. Non-Cholinesterase Mechanisms of Central and Peripheral Neurotoxicity: Muscarinic Receptors and Other Targets18. Paraoxonase (PON1) Polymorphisms and Toxicity of Organophosphates19. Tolerance Development to Toxicity of Cholinesterase InhibitorsSection-IV Organ Toxicity 20. CNS Effects and Neurotoxicity21. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates: A Case Study of Chlorpyrifos22. In Vitro Models for Testing Organophosphate-Induced Neurotoxicity and Remediation23. Electrophysiological Mechanisms in Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates and Carbamates24. Behavioral Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors25. PNS Effects and Delayed Neuropathy26. The Intermediate Syndrome in Organophosphate Poisoning27. Cardiovascular Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors28. Pulmonary Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors29. Approaches in Defining and Evaluating the Inhalation Pharmacology and Toxicology Hazards of Anticholinesterases30. Dermal Absorption/Toxicity of Organophosphates and Carbamates31. Local and Systemic Ophthalmic Pharmacology and Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Anticholinesterases32. Reproductive Toxicity of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides33. Placental Toxicity of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides34. Endocrine Disruption by Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides35. Organophosphates, Carbamates and the Immune SystemSection-V Non-Specific Toxic Effects36. Oxidative Stress in Anticholinesterase Induced Excitotoxicity 37. DNA Damage, Gene Expression and Carcinogenesis by Organophosphates and Carbamates38. Temperature Regulation in Experimental Mammals and Humans Exposed to Organophosphate and Carbamate Agents39. Occupational Toxicology and Occupational Hygiene Aspects of Organophosphate and Carbamate Anticholinesterases with Particular Reference to PesticidesSection-VI Risk Assessment & Regulations40. Public Health Impacts of Organophosphates and Carbamates41. Cumulative Effects of Organophosphorus or Carbamate Pesticides42. Federal Regulations and Risk Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides43. Regulatory Considerations in Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides44. WHO/FAO Guidelines for Cholinesterase Inhibiting Pesticide Residues in FoodSection-VII Aquatic & Wildlife45. Aquatic Toxicity of Carbamates and Organophosphates 46. Toxicity of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides Using Birds as Sentinels for Terrestrial Vertebrate WildlifeSection-VIII Analytical & Biomarkers 47. Analysis of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides and Anticholinesterase Therapeutic Agents48. Biomarkers of Organophosphate ExposureSection-IX Therapeutic Measures49. Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning