Three-dimensional Integrated Circuit DesignBy
- Vasilis Pavlidis
- Eby Friedman
With vastly increased complexity and functionality in the "nanometer era" (i.e. hundreds of millions of transistors on one chip), increasing the performance of integrated circuits has become a challenging task. This is due primarily to the inevitable increase in the distance among circuit elements and interconnect design solutions have become the greatest determining factor in overall performance. Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits (ICs), which contain multiple layers of active devices, have the potential to enhance dramatically chip performance and functionality, while reducing the distance among devices on a chip. They promise solutions to the current "interconnect bottleneck" challenges faced by IC designers. They also may facilitate the integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals. However, before these advantages can be realized, key technology challenges of 3D ICs must be addressed. This is the first book on 3-D integrated circuit design, covering all of the technological and design aspects of this emerging design paradigm, while proposing effective solutions to specific challenging problems concerning the design of three-dimensional integrated circuits. A handy, comprehensive reference or a practical design guide, this book provides a sound foundation for the design of three-dimensional integrated circuits.
Paperback, 336 Pages
Published: October 2008
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
- Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1. From the Integrated Circuit to the Computer 1.2. Interconnects; an old Friend 1.3. Three-Dimensional or Vertical Integration 1.3.1. Opportunities for Three-Dimensional Integration 1.3.2. Challenges for Three-Dimensional Integration 1.4. Book Organization Chapter 2. Manufacturing of 3-D Packaged Systems 2.1. Three-Dimensional Integration 2.1.1. System-in-Package 2.1.2. Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits 2.2. System-on-Package 2.3. Technologies for System-in-Package 2.3.1. Wire Bonded System-in-Package 2.3.2. Peripheral Vertical Interconnects 2.3.3. Area Array Vertical Interconnects 2.3.4. Metallizing the Walls of an SiP 2.4. Cost Issues for 3-D Integrated Systems 2.5. Summary Chapter 3. 3-D Integrated Circuit Fabrication Technologies 3.1. Monolithic 3-D ICs 3.1.1. Stacked 3-D ICs 3.1.2. 3-D Fin-FETs 3.2. 3-D ICs with Through Silicon (TSV) or Interplane Vias 3.3. Contactless 3-D ICs 3.3.1. Capacitively Coupled 3-D ICs 3.3.2. Inductively Coupled 3-D ICs 3.4. Vertical Interconnects for 3-D ICs 3.4.1. Electrical Characteristics of Through Silicon Vias 3.5. Summary Chapter 4. Interconnect Prediction Models 4.1. Interconnect Prediction Models for 2-D Circuits 4.2. Interconnect Prediction Models for 3-D ICs 4.3. Projections for 3-D ICs 4.4. Summary Chapter 5. Physical Design Techniques for 3-D ICs 5.1. Floorplanning Techniques 5.1.1. Single versus Multi-Step Floorplanning for 3-D ICs 5.1.2. Multi-Objective Floorplanning Techniques for 3-D ICs 5.2. Placement Techniques 5.2.1. Multi-Objective Placement for 3-D ICs 5.3. Routing Techniques 5.4. Layout Tools 5.5. Summary Chapter 6. Thermal Management Techniques 6.1. Thermal Analysis of 3-D ICs 6.1.1. Closed-Form Temperature Expressions 6.1.2. Compact Thermal Models 6.1.3. Mesh Based Thermal Models 6.2. Thermal Management Techniques without Thermal Vias 6.2.1. Thermal-Driven Floorplanning 6.2.2. Thermal-Driven Placement 6.3. Thermal Management Techniques Employing Thermal Vias 6.3.1. Region Constrained Thermal Via Insertion 6.3.2. Thermal Via Planning Techniques 6.3.3. Thermal Wire Insertion 6.4. Summary Chapter 7. Timing Optimization for Two-Terminal Interconnects 7.1. Interplane Interconnect Models 7.2. Two-Terminal Nets with a Single Interplane Via 7.2.1. Elmore delay model of an interplane interconnect 7.2.2. Interplane Interconnect Delay 7.2.3. Optimum Via Location 7.2.4. Improvement in Interconnect Delay 7.3. Two-Terminal Interconnects with Multiple Interplane Vias 7.3.1. Two-Terminal Via Placement Heuristic 7.3.2. Two-Terminal Via Placement Algorithm 7.3.3. Application of the Via Placement Technique 7.4. Summary Chapter 8. Timing Optimization for Multi-Terminal Interconnects 8.1. Timing-Driven Via Placement for Interplane Interconnect Trees 8.2. Multi-Terminal Interconnect Via Placement Heuristics 8.2.1. Interconnect Trees 8.2.2. Single Critical Sink Interconnect Trees 8.3. Via Placement Algorithms for Interconnect Trees 8.3.1. Interconnect Tree Via Placement Algorithm (ITVPA) 8.3.2. Single Critical Sink Interconnect Tree Via Placement Algorithm (SCSVPA) 8.4. Via Placement Results and Discussion 8.5. Summary Appendix A:Enumeration of Gate Pairs in a 3-D IC Appendix B:Formal Proof of Optimum Single Via Placement Appendix C:Proof of the Two-Terminal Via Placement HeuristicAppendix D:Proof of Condition for Via Placement of Multi-Terminal Nets References