The Reclamation of Former Coal Mines and SteelworksBy
- I.G. Richards
- J.P. Palmer
- P.A. Barratt, Richards, Moorehead and Laing Ltd., Ruthin, UK
This book, the result of studies undertaken on behalf of the European Commission, examines the current 'state of the art' techniques for the restoration of despoiled lands arising from the coal and steel industries. It provides technical guidance to aid the process of the regeneration of the coal and steel communities of Europe. The chapters are fully cross referenced in the text, and where more technical or specific detail is provided, this has been placed into boxes rather than in the main text.
The book will be of great interest to environmental scientists and engineers, and to all those who are involved in mining, mineral waste, soil pollution and waste management and disposal.
Studies in Environmental Science
Published: October 1993
- Preface. Acknowledgements. Use of the book. Introduction. Coal and steel in Europe. The role of the European Community in environmental protection. Derelict land arising from the coal and steel industries. The stimulus for reclamation. Reclamation strategy. The experience of reclamation in Wales. Site Assessment. Introduction. Preliminary planning. Desk study and preliminary investigations. Detailed investigations. Techniques of ground investigation. Investigation of contamination. Assessment of industrial archaeological value. Reclamation proposals. Investigation and Treatment of Mine Workings and Unstable Ground. Introduction. Causes and effects of mining subsidence. Investigation of mine workings. Investigation of shafts and adits. Treatment of shallow workings, shafts and adits. Methods of minimising subsidence damage. Demolition and Site Clearance. Introduction. Colliery site features. Steelworks sites features. Site investigations prior to demolition and site clearance. Demolition works. Recovery and recycling of materials. Industrial archaeology. Re-use of existing buildings and structures. Colliery Spoil Heap Characteristics. Introduction. Impact of spoil heaps. Spoil characteristics. Colliery spoil as a substrate for plant growth. Natural vegetation on colliery spoil heaps. Use of colliery spoil. Colliery Spoil Heap Stability. Introduction. Spoil and tip characteristics. Factors affecting stability. Modes of tip failure. Investigation and stability analysis. Remedial measures on existing tips. Construction methods for new tips and the reshaping of existing tips. Inspections. Colliery Spoil Heap Combustion. Introduction. Causes of combustion. Hazards. Assessment. Methods of treatment of spoil heap combustion. Safety precautions. Methods of prevention of combustion. Colliery Spoil Washing. Introduction. Characterisation of colliery spoil for feasibility of coal recovery. Coal recovery technology. Infrastructure. Steel Industry Raw Materials and Wastes. Iron and steel making. Wastes from iron and steel making. Coal Carbonisation. Introduction. Nature of by-products and wastes. Background levels of contamination. Structures and materials on site. Environmental contamination. Reclamation of coal carbonisation facilities. The Treatment of Contaminated Soils. Introduction. Removal and disposal of contaminated materials. In situ isolation techniques. Site cover systems. Grouted horizontal barriers. Total containment. Thermal techniques of decontamination. Non-destructive decontamination techniques. Standards and objectives for decontamination. Water Quality. Introduction. Water and coal mining. Water and steelmaking. Assessment. Control of water pollution. Legislation and standards. Landform and Earthworks. Introduction. The need for remodelling of landforms. Approaches to remodelling landform. Constraints on remodelling. The design process. Technical aspects of landform remodelling. The Establishment and Care of Vegetation. Introduction. Approaches to vegetation design. The implications of substrate characteristics for revegetation. The treatment of substrate characteristics. Species selection. Sowing and planting methods. The care of newly established vegetation. Management of Reclaimed Land. Introduction. Management arrangements. Management plans. Site records and reference material. Vegetation management. Management of engineering structures and utility services. The management of site use. A Framework for Site Regeneration. The concept of framework. Planning for regeneration. Site clean-up. The product of reclamation. Case Studies. Scotland. England. Wales. France. Belgium. Italy. Germany - Saxony (Eastern Länder). Germany - The Ruhr (Western Länder). Spain. References. Glossary. Abbreviations. Index.