The New Public Health

An Introduction for the 21st Century


  • Theodore Tulchinsky, Braun School of Public Health, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Hadassah Ein Karem, Jerusalem, Israel
  • Elena Varavikova, State Adviser of the Russian Federation; Adjunct Professor at the I.M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy (MMA), Moscow, Russian Federation
  • Theodore Tulchinsky, Braun School of Public Health, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Hadassah Ein Karem, Jerusalem, Israel
  • Elena Varavikova, State Adviser of the Russian Federation; Adjunct Professor at the I.M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy (MMA), Moscow, Russian Federation

Countries around the world are engaged in health reform, which places great demands on health care providers and systems managers. From the managed care revolution in the United States to the rebuilding of health systems in postcommunist Russia, these reforms impact millions of health care workers, government officials, patients, and the public alike.The New Public Health will help students and practitioners understand factors affecting the reform process of health care organization and delivery. It links the classic public health issues such as environmental sanitation, health education, and epidemiology with the new issues of universal health care, economics, and management of health systems for the new century.
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Graduate and undergraduate students in public health, health managers, health economists, physicians, nurses, and other professionals requiring an overview of public health.


Book information

  • Published: July 2000
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-703350-1


"...impressed with the scope and depth of its coverage. ...The book would be most welcome by the growing number of undergraduate programs in public health springing up all over the U.S. ...It is a tour de force and should be most useful in the eastern Europe schools of public health." —Lowell Levin, Yale University, Dept of Epidemiology and Public Health "There are few comprehensive textbooks in this field, so each new one is welcomed, this one warmly so. ...a good book, well able to stand comparison to others currently available. ...I commend this book. It will be a valuable resource for graduate students in public health and residency training programs." —John M. Last, University of Ottawa, ANNALS OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS OF CANADA

Table of Contents

AcknowledgementsForeword.Introduction.1. A History of Public HealthIntroduction. Prehistoric Societies. Ancient World. The Early Medieval Period (Fifth to Tenth Centuries AD). The Late Medieval Period (Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries). The Renaissance (1500 - 1750). Enlightenment, Science, and Revolution (1750 - 1830). Foundations of Health Statistics and Epidemiology. Social Reform and the Sanitary Movement (1830 - 1875). Hospital Reform. The Bacteriologic Revolution. Microbiology and Immunology. Maternal and Child Health. Nutrition in Public Health. Military Medicine. Internationalization of Health. The Epidemiologic Transition. The Evolution of Public Health in the Twentieth Century. Creating and Managing Health Systems. Summary. Historical Markers. Recommended Readings. Bibliography.2. Expanding the Concept of Public HealthIntroduction. Evolution of Public Health. Health and Disease. The Natural History of Disease. Society and Health. Modes of Prevention. Demographic and Epidemiologic Transition. Interdependence of Health Services. Defining Public Health. World Health Organization's Definition of Health. Selective Primary Care. The Risk Approach. The Case-for-Action. Political Economy and Health. Health and Development. Health Systems: The Case for Reform. Advocacy and Consumerism. The Health Field Concept. The Value of Medical Care in Public Health. Health Targets. Individual and Community Participation in Health. Social Ecology and Health Promotion. Defining Public Health Standards. Integrative Approaches to Public Health. The New Public Health. Summary. Recommended Readings. Bibliography.3. Measuring and Evaluating the Health of a PopulationIntroduction. Epidemiology. Social Epidemiology. Epidemiology in Building Health Policy. Rates and Ratios. Demography. Life Expectancy. Sentinel Events. The Burden of Disease. Measurements. Normal Distribution. Standardization of Rates. Sampling. Potential Errors in Measurement. Screening for Disease. Epidemiologic Studies. Establishing Casual Relationships. Notifiable Diseases. Special Registries and Reporting Systems. Disease Classification. Hospital Discharge Information. Health Information Systems (Informatics). Surveillance, Reporting, and Publication. Assessing the Health of the Individual. Assessment of Population Health. Health Care Financing and Organization. Summary - From Information to Knowledge Policy. Electronic Sources. Recommended Readings. Bibliography.4. Communicable DiseasesIntroduction. Public Health and the Control of Communicable Disease. The Nature of Communicable Disease. Host - Agent - Environment Triad. Classification of Communicable Disease. Modes of Transmission of Disease. Immunity. Surveillance. Endemic and Epidemic Disease. Control of Communicable Diseases. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Essentials of an Immunization Program. Control/Eradication of Infectious Diseases. Tuberculosis. Streptococcal Diseases. Zoonoses. Vector-Borne Diseases. Parasitic Diseases. Legionnaire's Disease. Leprosy. Trachoma. Sexually Transmitted Disease. Diarrheal Diseases. Acute Respiratory Infections. Communicable Disease Control in the New Public Health. Summary. Electronic Media. Recommended Readings. Bibliography. Vaccine-Preventable Disease. Other Communicable Diseases.5. Noncommunicable ConditionsIntroduction. The Rise of Chronic Disease. The Burden of Chronic Conditions. Risk Factors and Causation of Chronic Conditions. Chronic Manifestations of Infectious Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Chronic Lung Disease. Diabetes Mellitus. End Stage Renal Disease. Cancer. Chronic Liver Disease. Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders. Neurological Disorders. Visual Disorders. Hearing Disorders. Trauma, Violence, and Injury. Chronic Disease and the New Public Health. Summary. Electronic Media. Recommended Reading. Bibliography.6. Family HealthIntroduction. The Family Unit. Maternal Health. Labor and Delivery. Genetic and Birth Disorders. Infant and Child Health. Infancy Care and Feeding. Anticipatory Counseling. Documentation, Records, and Monitoring. The Preschooler (Ages 1 - 5 Years). School and Adolescent Health. Adult Health. Women's Health. Men's Health. Health of the Elderly. Summary. Electronic Media. Recommended Readings. Bibliography.7. Special Community Health NeedsIntroduction. Mental Health. Mental Handicap. Oral Health. Physical Disability and Rehabilitation. Special Group Health Needs. Gay and Lesbian Health. Native People's Health. Prisoners' Health. Homeless Population Health. Refugee Health. Military Medicine. Health Protection in Disasters. Internet Websites. Summary. Electronic Media. Recommended Readings. Bibliography.8. Nutrition and Food SafetyIntroduction. Development of Nutrition in New Public Health. Nutrition in a Global Context. Nutrition and Infection. Functions of Food. Human Nutritional Requirements. Growth. Measuring Body Mass. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Disorders of Undernutrition. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency Conditions. Eating Disorders. Diseases of Overnutrition. Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation. Promoting Healthy Diets and Lifestyles. Dietary Guidelines. Vitamin and Mineral Enrichment of Basic Foods. Food and Nutrition Policy. Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation. Food Quality and Safety. Nutrition and the New Public Health. Summary. Electronic Media. Recommended Readings. Bibliography. Nutrition and Food Technology Journals.9. Environmental and Occupational HealthEnvironmental Health: Introduction. Environmental Issues. Geographic Environmental Targets. Global Environmental Change. Community Water Supplies. Sewage Collection and Treatment. Solid Waste. Toxins. Agricultural and Environmental Hazards. Air Pollution. Indoor Pollution. Hazardous or Toxic Waste. Radiation. Environmental Impact. Environmental Health Organization. Occupational Health: Introduction. Development of Occupational Health. The Health of Workers. The Burden of Occupational Morbidity and Mortality. International Issues in Occupational Health. Toxicity at the Workplace and in the Environment. Workplace Violence. Occupational Health in Clinical Practice. Inspecting the Place of Work. Risk Assessment. Preventing Disasters in the Workplace. Occupation and the New Public Health. Summary. Electronic Media. Recommended Readings. Bibliography - Water Quality and Waterborne Disease. Bibliography - Occupational and Environmental Health. 10. Organization of Public Health SystemsIntroduction. Government and Health of the Nation. Functions of Public Health. Nongovernment Roles in Health. Medical Practice and Public Health. Incentives and Regulation. National Government Public Health Services. State Government Public Health Services. State Government Public Health Services. Local Health Authorities. Monitoring Health Status. National Health Targets. Public Health Organization and the New Public Health. The Uninsured as a Public Health Problem. Summary. Electronic Media. Recommended Reading. Bibliography.11. Measuring Costs: The Economics of HealthIntroduction. Economic Issues of Health Systems. Basic Concepts in Health Economics. Need, Demand, and Utilization of Health Services. Competition in Health Care. Elasticities of Demand. Measuring Costs. Economic Measures of Health Status. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Basic Assessment Scheme for Intervention Costs and Consequences. The Value of Human Life. Health Financing - The Macroeconomics Level. Costs of Illness. Medical and Hospital Care - Microeconomics. Health Maintenance and Managed Care Organizations. District Health Systems. Paying for Hospital Care. Capital Costs. Modified Market Forces. Economics and the New Public Health. Summary. Electronic Media. Recommended Readings. Bibliography.12. Planning and Managing Health SystemsIntroduction. Health Policy and Planning as Context. The Elements of Organizations. Scientific Management. Bureaucratic Pyramidal Organizations. Organizations as Energy Systems. Target-Oriented Management. Human Relations Management. Network Organizations. Total Quality Management. Changing Human Behavior. Empowerment. Strategic Management of Health Systems. Health System Organization Models. Skills for Management. The Chief Executive Officer of Health Organizations. Community Participation. Integration - Lateral and Vertical. Norms and Performance Indicators. New Organizational Models. Management and the New Public Health. Summary. Recommended Readings. Bibliography. 13. National Health SystemsIntroduction. Health Systems in Developed Countries. The United States. Canada. The United Kingdom. The Nordic Countries. Western Europe. Japan. Russia. Israel. Health Systems in Developing Countries. Sub-Saharan Africa. Latin America and the Caribbean. Asia. Comparing National Health Systems. Reforming National Health Systems. Health Systems and the New Public Health. Electronic Media. Recommended Readings. Bibliography.14. Human Resources for Health CareIntroduction. Overview of Human Resources. Human Resources Planning. Basic Medical Education. Postgraduate Medical Training. Specialization and Family Practice. Training in Preventive Medicine. Nursing Education. In-Service and Continuing Education. Accreditation of Medical Educational or Training Facilities. The Range of Health Disciplines. Licensure and Supervision. Constraints on the Health Care Provider. New Health Professions. Alternative Medicine. Changing the Balance. Education for Public Health and Health Management. Health Policy and Management of Human Resources. Summary. Electronic Media. Recommended Readings. Bibliography. 15. Technology, Quality, Law, and EthicsIntroduction. Innovation, Regulation, and Quality Control. Appropriate Health Technology. Health Technology Assessment. Dissemination of Technology. Quality Assurance. Organization of Care. Performance Indicators. Consumerism and Quality. The Public Interest. Total Quality Management. Public Health Law. Ethical Issues in Public Health. Summary - Technology, Quality, Law, and Ethics in the New Public Health. Electronic Media. Recommended Readings. Bibliography. Relevant Journals. Relevant Organizations.16. Globalization of HealthWhy the "Globalization of Health". The Global Health Situation. Priorities in Global Health. Development and Health. Organization for International Health. The World Health Organization. Nongovernmental Organizations. The World Bank. Trends in Global Health. Emerging Infectious Disease Threats. New and Renewed Targets and Goals. Expanding National Health Capacity. Global Health and the New Public Health. Summary. Electronic Media. Recommended Readings. Bibliography. Publications and Journals.GlossarySubject Index