The Natural History of an Arctic Oil Field

Development and the Biota

Edited by

  • Joe Truett, Truett Research, Glenwood, New Mexico, U.S.A.
  • Stephen Johnson, LGL Limited, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada

In spite of the harsh conditions that characterize the Arctic, it is a surprisingly fragile ecosystem. The exploration for oil in the Arctic over the past 30 years has had profound effects on the plants and animals that inhabit this frozen clime. The Natural History of an Arctic Oil Field synthesizes decades of research on these myriad impacts. Specialists with years of field experience have contributed to this volume to create the first widely available synopsis of the ecology and wildlife biology of animals and plants living in close association with an actively producing oil field.
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Audience

Faculty and graduate students interested in polar ecology; federal and state policy makers; resource users; impact analysts; engineers; research and management biologists; oil industry and environmental cosultants; university libraries; and government agencies.

 

Book information

  • Published: May 2000
  • Imprint: ACADEMIC PRESS
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-701235-3


Table of Contents


Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Part I Introduction to Arctic Ecosystems

1 Introduction

Introduction

Physical Environment

Wildlife, Fish, and Habitats

Anthropogenic Changes

The Investigative Focus

References

2 North Slope Oil Field Development

Introduction

The History of North Slope Oil Exploration and Development

The Nature of Oil Development

Identifying and Monitoring Environmental Impacts

Mitigating Environmental Impacts

Conclusions

References

3 Vegetative Responses to Disturbance

Introduction

Exploration Sites (1940-1970)

Exploration Sites (1970-1990)

Exploration Sites (1990s)

Winter Haul Roads

Production Pads and Roads

Dust Fallout from Roads

Gravel Spills on Tundra

Snow Stockpiles

Seeded and Fertilized Sites

Nutrients from Wastewater

Impoundments

Buried Cable Trenches

Oil Spills

Brine Spills

Conclusions

Epilogue

References

Part II Mammals of an Arctic Oil Field

4 Caribou

Introduction

Distribution and Abundance

Population Influences in the Oil-Field Region

Responses to Human Activity and Habitat Change

Can Caribou Adapt to Environmental Change?

References

5 Caribou and Oil Fields

Introduction

Caribou Use of the Oil Fields

Implications for Impacts of Oil Development

References

6 Grizzly Bear

Introduction

Distribution and Abundance

Habitat Use and Food Habits

Denning Ecology

Population Dynamics

Discussion

References

7 Polar Bear

Introduction

Distribution and Movement

Maternal Denning

Population Status

Research and Management Challenges

Conservation Issues

Conclusions

References

8 Arctic Fox

Introduction

Distribution and Abundance

Population Influences and Limits in the Region

Responses to Development

Management Issues

References

Part III Birds of an Arctic Oil Field

9 Pacific Loon

Introduction

Distribution, Abundance, and Productivity

Population Influences

Responses to Habitat Change and Human Activity

References

10 Tundra Swans

Introduction

Distribution and Abundance

Nesting Success and Productivity

Habitat Use

Diet

Environmental Influences on Swan Populations

Conclusions

References

11 Black Brant

Introduction

Distribution and Abundance

Population Influences in the Oil-Field Region

Responses to Habitat Change and Human Activity

References

12 Lesser Snow Goose

Introduction

Distribution and Abundance

Population Influences in the Oil-Field Region

Implications of Migration

Conclusions

References

13 Pacific Eider

Introduction

Regional Distribution and Nesting

Migration

Population Influences in the Oil-Field Region

Population Influences Elsewhere

Conclusions

References

14 Shorebirds

Introduction

Distribution and Abundance

Population Influences in the Oil-Field Region

Responses to Habitat Change and Human Activity

References

Part IV Marine and Freshwater Life

15 Freshwater Invertebrates: Their Regulation and Importance to Vertebrates

Introduction

Habitat

The Invertebrate Fauna

Regulation of Invertebrate Communities

Influences of Development

References

16 Freshwater Fishes in the Arctic Oil-Field Region and Coastal Plain of Alaska

Introduction

Freshwater Habitats and Their Dominant Fishes

Ninespine Stickleback

Arctic Grayling

Least Cisco

Broad Whitefish

Round Whitefish

Conclusions

References

17 Anadromous and Amphidromous Fishes

Introduction

Distribution and Abundance

Habitat and Trophic Ecology

Responses to Development

References

18 The Benthic Faunal Assemblage of the Boulder Patch Kelp Community

Introduction

Study Area

Methods

Results

Discussion

Management Implications

References

Part V Synthesis

19 Synthesis

Index