The Natural History of an Arctic Oil Field book cover

The Natural History of an Arctic Oil Field

Development and the Biota

In spite of the harsh conditions that characterize the Arctic, it is a surprisingly fragile ecosystem. The exploration for oil in the Arctic over the past 30 years has had profound effects on the plants and animals that inhabit this frozen clime. The Natural History of an Arctic Oil Field synthesizes decades of research on these myriad impacts. Specialists with years of field experience have contributed to this volume to create the first widely available synopsis of the ecology and wildlife biology of animals and plants living in close association with an actively producing oil field.

Audience
Faculty and graduate students interested in polar ecology; federal and state policy makers; resource users; impact analysts; engineers; research and management biologists; oil industry and environmental cosultants; university libraries; and government agencies.

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Published: May 2000

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-701235-3

Contents


  • Contributors

    Foreword

    Preface

    Part I Introduction to Arctic Ecosystems

    1 Introduction

    Introduction

    Physical Environment

    Wildlife, Fish, and Habitats

    Anthropogenic Changes

    The Investigative Focus

    References

    2 North Slope Oil Field Development

    Introduction

    The History of North Slope Oil Exploration and Development

    The Nature of Oil Development

    Identifying and Monitoring Environmental Impacts

    Mitigating Environmental Impacts

    Conclusions

    References

    3 Vegetative Responses to Disturbance

    Introduction

    Exploration Sites (1940-1970)

    Exploration Sites (1970-1990)

    Exploration Sites (1990s)

    Winter Haul Roads

    Production Pads and Roads

    Dust Fallout from Roads

    Gravel Spills on Tundra

    Snow Stockpiles

    Seeded and Fertilized Sites

    Nutrients from Wastewater

    Impoundments

    Buried Cable Trenches

    Oil Spills

    Brine Spills

    Conclusions

    Epilogue

    References

    Part II Mammals of an Arctic Oil Field

    4 Caribou

    Introduction

    Distribution and Abundance

    Population Influences in the Oil-Field Region

    Responses to Human Activity and Habitat Change

    Can Caribou Adapt to Environmental Change?

    References

    5 Caribou and Oil Fields

    Introduction

    Caribou Use of the Oil Fields

    Implications for Impacts of Oil Development

    References

    6 Grizzly Bear

    Introduction

    Distribution and Abundance

    Habitat Use and Food Habits

    Denning Ecology

    Population Dynamics

    Discussion

    References

    7 Polar Bear

    Introduction

    Distribution and Movement

    Maternal Denning

    Population Status

    Research and Management Challenges

    Conservation Issues

    Conclusions

    References

    8 Arctic Fox

    Introduction

    Distribution and Abundance

    Population Influences and Limits in the Region

    Responses to Development

    Management Issues

    References

    Part III Birds of an Arctic Oil Field

    9 Pacific Loon

    Introduction

    Distribution, Abundance, and Productivity

    Population Influences

    Responses to Habitat Change and Human Activity

    References

    10 Tundra Swans

    Introduction

    Distribution and Abundance

    Nesting Success and Productivity

    Habitat Use

    Diet

    Environmental Influences on Swan Populations

    Conclusions

    References

    11 Black Brant

    Introduction

    Distribution and Abundance

    Population Influences in the Oil-Field Region

    Responses to Habitat Change and Human Activity

    References

    12 Lesser Snow Goose

    Introduction

    Distribution and Abundance

    Population Influences in the Oil-Field Region

    Implications of Migration

    Conclusions

    References

    13 Pacific Eider

    Introduction

    Regional Distribution and Nesting

    Migration

    Population Influences in the Oil-Field Region

    Population Influences Elsewhere

    Conclusions

    References

    14 Shorebirds

    Introduction

    Distribution and Abundance

    Population Influences in the Oil-Field Region

    Responses to Habitat Change and Human Activity

    References

    Part IV Marine and Freshwater Life

    15 Freshwater Invertebrates: Their Regulation and Importance to Vertebrates

    Introduction

    Habitat

    The Invertebrate Fauna

    Regulation of Invertebrate Communities

    Influences of Development

    References

    16 Freshwater Fishes in the Arctic Oil-Field Region and Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Introduction

    Freshwater Habitats and Their Dominant Fishes

    Ninespine Stickleback

    Arctic Grayling

    Least Cisco

    Broad Whitefish

    Round Whitefish

    Conclusions

    References

    17 Anadromous and Amphidromous Fishes

    Introduction

    Distribution and Abundance

    Habitat and Trophic Ecology

    Responses to Development

    References

    18 The Benthic Faunal Assemblage of the Boulder Patch Kelp Community

    Introduction

    Study Area

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Management Implications

    References

    Part V Synthesis

    19 Synthesis

    Index

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