The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment book cover

The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

In recent years the detection of pharmaceuticals within the natural environment has led to concern from many parties and a growing recognition of both their levels and their real or potential environmental impact. The life-cycle of pharmaceuticals in the environment identifies pathways of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment - beginning with the role of global prescribing and disposal practices. It then discusses typical levels of common pharmaceuticals and how they can be determined in natural waters such as raw and treated sewage, and potable water. Methods currently available to degrade pharmaceuticals in the natural waters are discussed and some of their ecotoxicological impacts are reviewed. Future considerations and the growing concept of product stewardship are also examined.

Hardbound, 270 Pages

Published: September 2014

Imprint: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 978-1-907568-25-1


  • Prescribing practices of pharmaceuticals; Disposal practices of pharmaceuticals; Pharmaceutical levels detected within natural waters; Removal and degradation of pharmaceuticals in natural waters; Environmental impact; Conclusions/future policies.


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