The Law of Emergencies
Public Health and Disaster ManagementBy
- Nan Hunter
The Law of Emergencies introduces the American legal system as it interacts with emergency management and public health issues. Hunter engages with and debates some of the most important Constitutional issues of our time, such as the tension between civil liberties and national security. She also shows how the law in this area plays out in the context of real life emergencies where individuals often have to make split-second decisions.
This book covers the major legal principles underlying emergency policy and operations. It analyzes legal authority at the federal, state and local levels, placing the issues in historical context but concentrating on contemporary questions. It includes primary texts, reader-friendly expository explanation, and sample discussion questions. Prior knowledge of the law is not necessary in order to use and understand this book. The contents are organized into 13 substantive chapters plus two additional chapters with problem sets. This makes it especially easy to use for a separate course focused on law.
This book satisfies the need of professionals in a wide array of fields related to emergency management to understand both what the law requires and how to analyze issues for which there is no clear legal answer. It features materials on such critical issues as how to judge the extent of Constitutional authority for government to intervene in the lives and property of American citizens. At the same time, it also captures bread-and-butter issues such as responder liability and disaster relief methods. No other book brings these components together in a logically organized, step by step fashion.
Graduate and undergraduate students studying the major legal principles underlying emergency management and homeland security policy and operations, as well as professionals in EM and HS, and private-sector risk managers
Hardbound, 408 Pages
Published: July 2009
Imprint: Butterworth Heinemann
" . . . Hunter does a superior job of restricting an extraordinarily complex issue to the more essential components, juxtaposed with specific historic examples rather than a series of âsuppose that X happenedâ scenarios."--Dr. Christian M. Salmon, Research Scientist, George Washington University, School of Engineering and Applied Science.
Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency ManagementVolume 7, Issue 1, 2010, Article 18. "Hunter engages with and debates some of the most important constitutional issues of our time, such as the tension between civil liberties and national security. This book satisfies the need of professionals in a wide array of fields related to emergency management to understand both what the law requires and how to analyze issues for which there is no legal answer."-- The Journal of Law Enforcement"Hunter more than answers the needs of her intended audience: undergraduate, graduate, and law students, as well as professionals whose work involves preparation for or mitigation of emergencies. More broadly, however, this book is worthwhile for anyone responsible for public safety and security."--Security Management
Part I. The Legal Framework
1. Our Constitutional Structure of Government
The history of emergency laws in the United States; constitutional authority for enhanced executive power during emergencies; should there be an "emergency Constitution"? The Jacobson case.
2. The Constitution and Individual Rights
The concept of negative liberty; procedural and substantive due process; equal protection of the law; measuring risk and protecting liberty.
3. Congress and the Agencies
The National Emergencies Act; congressional power under the spending clause; post-9/11 emergency-related laws; what agencies do; coordination of agencies; the process of rule-making; the APA in action; state emergency management acts and the powers of governors; interstate compacts; jurisdiction over ports and airports; and the law governing local agencies such as police and fire departments.
4. The Domestic Use of Military Troops
The prohibitions of the Posse Comitatus Act, the exceptions in the Insurrection Act, the meaning of martial law, and the differences between the regular military, the reserves, the Coast Guard, and the National Guard.
Part II. The Law of Health Emergencies
5. Federal Public Health Law
Regulations for domestic diseases and for international travelers, changes to CDC's quarantine regulations, due process changes, and the role of airlines.
6. State Public Health Law
History, Jacobson revisited, emergency health powers laws, the powers of government during an emergency.
7. Contemporary Issues in Public Health Emergency Law
Definitions of bioterrorism, emerging infectious diseases, SARS, rationing medications, contemporary mass quarantine, and travel restrictions.
8. The Role of the Private Sector
The economic dimensions of emergencies; emergency rooms in an emergency; workplace safety; postal workers and the anthrax attacks; workplaces and mass quarantine; job protection; income replacement; and health care.
Part III. Disaster Management
An introduction to the template guiding federal, state, and local authorities in response to disasters resulting from any cause
9. The Stafford Act
History, conflicting voices, definitions, the declaration process, and federal assistance.
10. The Powers of State and Local Governments
Separation of powers in an emergency--the governor, legislature, courts; state and local government; Maryland as a case study.
11. Who Does What
The September 11 response, developing a comprehensive response plan, the National Incident Management System, the National Response Framework, state-to-state assistance agreements, and human rights during an emergency.
12. Searches, Siezures, and Evacuations
The Fourth Amendment; reasonable searches; community caretaking; case studies of a furniture store fire, a smallpox hospital, and a nursing home; takings and emergencies: statutory response, public policy.
13. Sovereign Immunity and Government Liability
The sovereign immunity defense, statutory waivers of sovereign immunity, negligence, intentional torts and active endangerment, the discretionary function exception, the Berkovitz case, and a Hurricane Katrina case.
14. Liability Issues for Individuals
Potential liability problems for responders acting in their capacity as public sector employees and for private individuals volunteering in an emergency; questions of professional licensing and what constitutes negligence for individuals who have special training, such as EMTs
Part IV. Testing Your Knowledge
15. A Dirty Bomb Scenario
A hypothetical but realistic time line of events associated with a dirty bomb attack. Questions interlaced in the text will ask students to place themselves in various roles as the narrative develops and will probe understanding of the materials in the first 14 chapters.
16. Pandemic Flu Scenario
A hypothetical but realistic time line of events associated with a naturally occurring infectious disease outbreak. Questions interlaced in the text will ask students to place themselves in various roles as the narrative develops and will probe understanding of the materials in the first 14 chapters.
Appendix: Case Study: The Spring 2009 Swine Influenza Outbreak
Defining swine flu; tracking the development of swine flu, prevention and control of measures; the outbreak in California; federal and international responses; World Health Organization Global Telephone News Conference Transcript; emergency declarations in the United States; congressional engagement; coercive measures and overreaction; conflicting views.