The Fundamentals of Corrosion and Scaling for Petroleum & Environmental Engineers

Scale, or deposits, can build up in the wellbore tubulars and other downhole components, causing considerable damage to the life of the well. Infrastructure provides the support for the wells system and with oil and gas consumption on the rise and transportation required to feed that demand, all petroleum and pipeline engineers must have accurate corrosion and scaling information. The Fundamentals of Corrosion and Scaling for Petroleum and Environmental Engineers will provide the quick knowledge that engineers need to not only enhance the reliability of corrosion and scale control technologies but also manage scale deposits, prevent fatigue and ensure equipment integrity.
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Book information

  • Published: November 2013
  • Imprint: GULF PUBLISHING COMPANY
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-799991-3


Table of Contents


Acknowledgments

Preface

Foreword

1 Introduction to Corrosion

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Definition of Corrosion

1.3 Introduction to Electrochemistry

1.4 Corrosion Agents in Drilling and Producing Operations

1.5 Requirements for Electrochemical Corrosion

1.5.1 Components of Electrochemical Corrosion

1.6 Chemistry of Corrosion and Electromotive Force Series

1.6.1 Actual Electrode Potentials

1.7 Galvanic Series

1.7.1 Cathode/Anode Areal Ratio

1.7.2 Polarization

1.8 Corrosion of Steel

1.9 Gaseous Corrodants

1.9.1 Oxygen

1.9.2 Hydrogen Sulfide

1.9.3 Carbon Dioxide

1.9.4 Alkalinity of Environment

1.10 Cathodic Protection

1.11 Role of Bacteria in Corrosion

1.12 Corrosion in Gas-Condensate Wells

1.13 Corrosion Rate Measurement Units

2 Types of Corrosion

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Sweet Corrosion

2.3 Sour Corrosion

2.4 Classes of Corrosion

2.4.1 Stress-Induced Corrosion

2.5 Types of Cracking in Drilling and Producing Environments

2.5.1 Hydrogen Embrittlement (Sulfide Cracking)

2.5.2 Hydrogen Blistering

2.5.3 Corrosion Fatigue

3 Microbial Corrosion

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 Microbial Growth and Metabolism

3.2 Microbes Associated with Oil field Corrosion

3.3 Microbial Interaction with Produced Oil

3.4 Microorganisms in Corrosion

3.4.1 Prokaryotes

3.4.2 Eukaryotes

3.5 Different Mechanisms of Microbial Corrosion

3.6 Corrosion Inhibition by Bacteria

3.7 Microbial Corrosion Control

4 Corrosion Control and Detection

4.1 Introduction to Corrosion Control

4.2 Cathodic Protection

4.3 Conditions for the Steady State or Limiting Corrosion Rate

4.3.1 Dangerous Inhibitors

4.4 Inhibitors and Passivators

4.4.1 Classification of Inhibitors

4.5 Coating

4.6 Detection of Corrosion

4.6.1 Chemical Tests

4.6.2 Microbial Tests

4.6.3 Electrochemical Tests

4.6.4 Pipeline Tests

4.7 Measurement of Corrosion

4.7.1 Visual Inspection

4.7.2 Caliper Surveys

4.7.3 Casing Thickness Logs

4.7.4 Radiography

4.8 Nondestructive Test Methods

4.8.1 Metal Loss Rate Tests Using Coupons

4.8.2 Other Corrosion Rate Monitors

5 Casing and Pipeline Corrosion

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Types of Casing

5.2.1 Cassion Pipe

5.2.2 Conductor Pipe

5.2.3 Surface Casing

5.2.4 Intermediate Casing

5.2.5 Production Casing

5.2.6 Liners

5.3 Corrosion of Steel

5.3.1 External Casing Corrosion

5.3.2 Casing Corrosion Inspection Tools

5.4 Protection of Casing from Corrosion

5.4.1 Wellhead Insulation

5.4.2 Cementation

5.4.3 Completion Fluids

5.4.4 Steel Grades

5.4.5 Casing Leaks

5.4.6 Cathodic Protection of Casing

5.5 Interaction of Old with New Pipeline

6 Scaling

6.1 Hardness and Alkalinity

6.2 Mineral Scales

6.2.1 Calcium Carbonate Scale

6.2.2 Sulfate Scales

6.3 Prediction of Scale Formation

6.4 Solubilities of Various Sulfates and Carbonates

6.5 Solubility of Calcite, Dolomite, and Magnesite and Mixture of These Carbonates

6.6 Relative Permeability Concepts

6.6.1 Effect of Water Hardness on Relative Permeability Curves

6.6.2 Effect of Water Chemistry on Oil Recovery

6.7 Scale Inhibition

7 Water Quality Control

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Injection Suitability

7.2.1 Clay Swelling

7.2.2 Formation and Deposition of Insoluble Material in the Formation

7.2.3 Increase in Oil Saturation

7.2.4 Suspended Solids

7.2.5 Movement of Formation Fines

7.2.6 Sources of Suspended Solids

7.3 Corrosion

7.3.1 Some Causes of Waterflood Corrosion

7.3.2 Carbon Dioxide

7.3.3 Hydrogen Sulfide

7.3.4 Oxygen

7.3.5 Interactions of the Gases

7.3.6 Bacterial Corrosion (See Chapter 3)

7.4 Use of Seawater for Injection Purposes

7.4.1 Characteristics of Seawater

7.4.2 Dissolved Oxygen

7.4.3 Calcium Carbonate Saturation

7.4.4 pH of Seawater

7.4.5 High Sulfate Ion Content

7.4.6 Magnesium Ion

7.4.7 Marine Life

7.4.8 Seasonal Changes in Composition of Seawater

7.4.9 Oil Content

7.5 Selection of Water Intake Location

7.5.1 Shallow Well in Seawater Aquifer

7.5.2 Intake from Nearshore Area

7.5.3 Offshore Intake

7.6 Design of Water Intake

7.6.1 Trash Screen

7.6.2 Fine Screen

7.6.3 Chlorination

7.6.4 Filtration

7.6.5 Deaeration of Seawater

7.6.6 Oxygen Scavenging

7.6.7 Stabilization of Seawater

7.6.8 Temperature of Seawater

7.6.9 Biocidal Treatment of Seawater

7.6.10 Corrosion Inhibition

7.7 Test Methods Used in Waterflooding Operations

7.7.1 Dissolved Oxygen

7.7.2 pH Change

7.7.3 The Membrane Filter Test

7.7.4 Total Iron Count Increase

7.7.5 Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

7.7.6 Total Bacteria

7.7.7 Corrosion Coupons

7.7.8 Significance of Various Tests

7.7.9 Reporting of Test Data

7.8 COPRA Correlation

7.9 Preparation of Water for Subsurface Injection

7.9.1 Oil Removal

7.9.2 Gravity Separation

7.9.3 Flotation

7.9.4 Removal of Solids (Filtration)

7.9.5 Slow Sand Filters

7.9.6 Rapid Sand Filters

7.9.7 High-Rate Rapid Sand Filters

7.9.8 Diatomaceous Earth Filters

7.9.9 Selection of Diatomite

7.10 Removal of Dissolved Gases

7.11 Equipment Considerations

7.11.1 Pipelines

7.11.2 Separators

7.11.3 Volume and Origin of Suspended Material to Be Removed

7.11.4 Aggressiveness of Waters

7.11.5 Value of Space on Which Facilities are to Be Located

7.11.6 Filtration Equipment

7.11.7 Clarification

7.11.8 In-Line Flocculation Systems

7.11.9 Filter-Aid Filters and In-Line Flocculation Filters

7.12 Degassing Equipment

7.12.1 Deaeration Equipment

7.13 Chemical Mixing and Feed Equipment

8 Economics of Corrosion

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Direct and Indirect Cost of Corrosion

8.3 Major Industrial Categories of Corrosion Costs

8.3.1 Infrastructure

8.3.2 Utilities

8.3.3 Production and Manufacturing

8.4 Corrosion-Control Economics and Preventive Methods

8.5 Galvanic versus Imposed Direct Electrical Current in Cathodic Protection

A Sample Problems and Questions

A.1 Sample Problems and Questions (Solutions and Answers are Provided)

A.2 Sample Questions and Problems (No Solutions)

B Glossary

C Conversion of Units

C.1 Temperature Conversion Formulas

C.2 Approximate Equivalents

C.3 Theoretical Aspects

Index