Sheet forming: blanking, piercing, pressing, deep drawing, spinning and flow turning, stretch forming, fluid and rubber forming, high-rate forming processes, welding, etc. Bulk forming: hot, warm and cold forging, rolling and extrusion, rotary forging, ring rolling, hydrostatic extrusion, conforming, net-shape manufacturing, etc. Powder forming: compaction, sintering, forging, extrusion, etc. Forming in the melt or near-melt condition: die casting, mushy-state forging, net-shape manufacturing, etc. Material-removal processes: cutting, grinding, ECM, EDM, etc. Non-traditional processes: shot peening and other impact-related processes, die-manufacturing processes, and laser processing, etc. Surface engineering: deposition, treatment and characterization technologies.