The Circuit Designer

The Circuit Designer's Companion

The Circuit Designers Companion, Third Edition, provides the essential information that every circuit designer needs to produce a working circuit, as well as information on how to make a design that is robust, tolerant to noise and temperature, and able to operate in the system for which it is intended. It looks at best practices, design guidelines, and engineering knowledge gained from years of experience, and includes practical, real-world considerations for components and printed circuit boards (PCBs) as well as their manufacturability, reliability, and cost. Organized into nine chapters, the book begins with a discussion of grounding and wiring of electronic or electrical circuits, when to consider grounding, and the main factors that must be taken into account when designing a new PCB. It then introduces the reader to passive components such as resistors and capacitors, potentiometers and inductors, and crystals and resonators, as well as active components like diodes, thyristors and triacs, bipolar transistors, junction field-effect transistors, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). It also describes high-speed digital circuit design and analog integrated circuits, including operational amplifiers and comparators, and power supplies such as batteries. The final two chapters focus on electromagnetic compatibility and the latest advances in electronics, along with safety considerations in the design of electronic equipment. This book is an invaluable resource for circuit designers and practicing electronics engineers, electronic engineering students, and professors.

Audience
Professional electronics design community, advanced amateur electronics designers, electronic engineering students and profs looking for a book with a real-world design outlook.

Paperback, 456 Pages

Published: November 2011

Imprint: Newnes

ISBN: 978-0-08-097138-4

Reviews

  • "Wilson (electrical and electronic engineering, U. of Southampton) revises a textbook and handbook written by Tim Williams and previously published in 1990 and 2004. Some of the technological details have changed in the two decades, he says, but most of the underlying principles remain the same. There is material here for anyone from bright-eyed students to grizzled veterans, though not always the same information. Among the topics are printed circuits, active components, analogy integrated circuits, electromagnetic compatibility, and general product design."--Reference and Research Book News, Inc.


Contents


  • Introduction

    Chapter 1 Grounding and wiring

        1.1 Grounding

             1.1.1 Grounding within one unit

             1.1.2 Chassis ground

             1.1.3 The conductivity of aluminum

             1.1.4 Ground loops

             1.1.5 Power supply returns

             1.1.6 Input signal ground

             1.1.7 Output signal ground

             1.1.8 Inter-board interface signals

             1.1.9 Star-point grounding

             1.1.10 Ground connections between units

             1.1.11 Shielding

             1.1.12 The safety earth

        1.2 Wiring and cables

             1.2.1 Wire types

             1.2.2 Cable types

             1.2.3 Power cables

             1.2.4 Data and multicore cables

             1.2.5 RF cables

             1.2.6 Twisted pair

             1.2.7 Crosstalk

        1.3 Transmission lines

             1.3.1 Characteristic impedance

             1.3.2 Time domain

             1.3.3 Frequency domain

    Chapter 2 Printed circuits

        2.1 Board types

             2.1.1 Materials

             2.1.2 Type of construction

             2.1.3 Choice of type

             2.1.4 Choice of size

             2.1.5 How a multilayer board is made

        2.2 Design rules

             2.2.1 Track width and spacing

             2.2.2 Hole and pad size

             2.2.3 Track routing

             2.2.4 Ground and power distribution

             2.2.5 Copper plating and finishing

             2.2.6 Solder resist

             2.2.7 Terminations and connections

        2.3 Board assembly: surface mount and through hole

             2.3.1 Surface mount design rules

             2.3.2 Package placement

             2.3.3 Component identification

             2.3.4 Understanding thermal behavior

        2.4 Surface protection

             2.4.1 Guarding

             2.4.2 Conformal coating

        2.5 Sourcing boards and artwork

             2.5.1 Artwork

             2.5.2 Boards

    Chapter 3 Passive components

        3.1 Resistors

             3.1.1 Resistor types

             3.1.2 Tolerancing

             3.1.3 Temperature coefficient

             3.1.4 Power

             3.1.5 Inductance

             3.1.6 Pulse handling

             3.1.7 Extreme values

             3.1.8 Fusible and safety resistors

             3.1.9 Resistor networks

        3.2 Potentiometers

             3.2.1 Trimmer types

             3.2.2 Panel types

             3.2.3 Pot applications

        3.3 Capacitors

             3.3.1 Metallized film and paper

             3.3.2 Multilayer ceramics

             3.3.3 Single-layer ceramics

             3.3.4 Electrolytics

             3.3.5 Solid tantalum

             3.3.6 Capacitor applications

             3.3.7 Series capacitors and DC leakage

             3.3.8 Dielectric absorption

             3.3.9 Self resonance

        3.4 Inductors

             3.4.1 Permeability

             3.4.2 Magnetic material definitions and metrics

             3.4.3 Self-capacitance

             3.4.4 Winding losses

             3.4.5 Inductor applications

             3.4.6 The danger of inductive transients

        3.5 Crystals and resonators

             3.5.1 Resonance

             3.5.2 Oscillator circuits

             3.5.3 Temperature

             3.5.4 Ceramic resonators

    Chapter 4 Active components

        4.1 Diodes

             4.1.1 Forward bias

             4.1.2 Reverse bias

             4.1.3 Leakage

             4.1.4 High-frequency performance

             4.1.5 Switching times

             4.1.6 Schottky diodes

             4.1.7 Zener diodes

             4.1.8 The zener as a clamp

        4.2 Thyristors and triacs

             4.2.1 Thyristor versus triac

             4.2.2 Triggering characteristics

             4.2.3 False triggering

             4.2.4 Conduction

             4.2.5 Switching

             4.2.6 Snubbing

        4.3 Bipolar transistors

             4.3.1 Leakage

             4.3.2 Saturation

             4.3.3 The Darlington

             4.3.4 Safe operating area

             4.3.5 Gain

             4.3.6 Switching and high-frequency performance

             4.3.7 Grading

        4.4 Junction field effect transistors

             4.4.1 Pinch-off

             4.4.2 Applications

             4.4.3 High-impedance circuits

        4.5 MOSFETs

             4.5.1 Low-power MOSFETs

             4.5.2 VMOS power FETs

             4.5.3 Gate drive impedance

             4.5.4 Switching speed

             4.5.5 On-state resistance

        4.6 IGBTs

             4.6.1 IGBT structure

             4.6.2 Advantages over MOSFETs and bipolars

             4.6.3 Disadvantages

    Chapter 5 Analog integrated circuits

        5.1 The ideal op-amp

             5.1.1 Applications categories

        5.2 The practical op-amp

             5.2.1 Offset voltage

             5.2.2 Bias and offset currents

             5.2.3 Common mode effects

             5.2.4 Input voltage range

             5.2.5 Output parameters

             5.2.6 AC parameters

             5.2.7 Slew rate and large-signal bandwidth

             5.2.8 Small-signal bandwidth

             5.2.9 Settling time

             5.2.10 The oscillating amplifier

             5.2.11 Open-loop gain

             5.2.12 Noise

             5.2.13 Supply current and voltage

             5.2.14 Temperature ratings

             5.2.15 Cost and availability

             5.2.16 Current feedback op-amps

        5.3 Comparators

             5.3.1 Output parameters

             5.3.2 AC parameters

             5.3.3 Op-amps as comparators (and vice versa)

             5.3.4 Hysteresis and oscillations

             5.3.5 Input voltage limits

             5.3.6 Comparator sourcing

        5.4 Voltage references

             5.4.1 Zener references

             5.4.2 Band-gap references

             5.4.3 Reference specifications

        5.5 Circuit modeling

    Chapter 6 Digital circuits

        6.1 Logic ICs

             6.1.1 Noise immunity and thresholds

             6.1.2 Fan-out and loading

             6.1.3 Induced switching noise

             6.1.4 Decoupling

             6.1.5 Unused gate inputs

        6.2 Interfacing

             6.2.1 Mixing analog and digital

             6.2.2 Generating digital levels from analog inputs

             6.2.3 Protection against externally applied overvoltages

             6.2.4 Isolation

             6.2.5 Classic data interface standards

             6.2.6 High-performance data interface standards

        6.3 Using microcontrollers

             6.3.1 How a microcontroller does your job

             6.3.2 Timing and quantization constraints

             6.3.3 Programming constraints

        6.4 Microprocessor watchdogs and supervision

             6.4.1 The threat of corruption

             6.4.2 Watchdog design

             6.4.3 Supervisor design

        6.5 Software protection techniques

             6.5.1 Input data validation and averaging

             6.5.2 Data and memory protection

             6.5.3 Re-initialization

        6.6 Choice of hardware platform

        6.7 Programmable logic devices

        6.8 Field programmable gate arrays

        6.9 Analog-to-digital conversion

             6.9.1 Digitization

        6.10 Different types of analog-to-digital converter

             6.10.1 Flash ADC

             6.10.2 Counting ADC

             6.10.3 Successive approximation ADC

             6.10.4 Dual slope ADC

             6.10.5 Oversampled or sigma delta converters

    Chapter 7 Power supplies

        7.1 General

             7.1.1 The linear supply

             7.1.2 The switch-mode supply

             7.1.3 Specifications

             7.1.4 Off-the-shelf versus roll-your-own

        7.2 Input and output parameters

             7.2.1 Voltage

             7.2.2 Current

             7.2.3 Fuses

             7.2.4 Switch-on surge, or inrush current

             7.2.5 Waveform distortion and interference

             7.2.6 Frequency

             7.2.7 Efficiency

             7.2.8 Deriving the input voltage from the output

             7.2.9 Low-load condition

             7.2.10 Rectifier and capacitor selection

             7.2.11 Load and line regulation

             7.2.12 Ripple and noise

             7.2.13 Transient response

        7.3 Abnormal conditions

             7.3.1 Output overload

             7.3.2 Input transients

             7.3.3 Transient suppressors

             7.3.4 Overvoltage protection

             7.3.5 Turn-on and turn-off

        7.4 Mechanical requirements

             7.4.1 Case size and construction

             7.4.2 Heatsinking

             7.4.3 Safety approvals

        7.5 Batteries

             7.5.1 Initial considerations

             7.5.2 Primary cells

             7.5.3 Secondary cells

             7.5.4 Charging

        7.6 Advanced circuit protection

    Chapter 8 Electromagnetic compatibility

        8.1 The need for EMC

             8.1.1 Immunity

             8.1.2 Emissions

        8.2 EMC legislation and standards

             8.2.1 The EMC Directive

             8.2.2 Existing standards

        8.3 Interference coupling mechanisms

             8.3.1 Conducted

             8.3.2 Radiated

        8.4 Circuit design and layout

             8.4.1 Choice of logic

             8.4.2 Analog circuits

             8.4.3 Software

        8.5 Shielding

             8.5.1 Apertures

             8.5.2 Seams

        8.6 Filtering

             8.6.1 The low-pass filter

             8.6.2 Mains filters

             8.6.3 I/O filters

             8.6.4 Feed through and three-terminal capacitors

        8.7 Cables and connectors

        8.8 EMC design checklist

    Chapter 9 General product design

        9.1 Safety

             9.1.1 Safety classes

             9.1.2 Insulation types

             9.1.3 Design considerations for safety protection

             9.1.4 Fire hazard

        9.2 Design for production

             9.2.1 Checklist

             9.2.2 The dangers of ESD

        9.3 Testability

             9.3.1 In-circuit testing

             9.3.2 Functional testing

             9.3.3 Boundary scan and JTAG

             9.3.4 Design techniques

        9.4 Reliability

             9.4.1 Definitions

             9.4.2 The cost of reliability

             9.4.3 Design for reliability

             9.4.4 The value of MTBF figures

             9.4.5 Design faults

        9.5 Thermal management

             9.5.1 Using thermal resistance

             9.5.2 Heatsinks

             9.5.3 Power semiconductor mounting

             9.5.4 Placement and layout

    Appendix: Standards

    Bibliography

    Index




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