The Cat Primary Visual Cortex book cover

The Cat Primary Visual Cortex

Written by experts on the forefront of investigations of brain function, vision, and perception, the material presented is of an unparalleled scientific quality, and shows that analyses of enormous breadth and sophistication are required to probe the structure and function of brain regions. The articles are highly persuasive in showing what can be achieved by carrying out careful and imaginative experiments. The Cat Primary Visual Cortex should emerge as essential reading for all those interested in cerebral cortical processing of visual signals or researching or working in any field of vision.

Audience
Neuroscientists, neurologists, cell and developmental biologists, and anyone involved in the visual sciences field.

Hardbound, 725 Pages

Published: October 2001

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-552104-8

Contents


  • Preface

    1 The Concept of Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Prologue

    Milestones in the Development of the Concept of Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Connections

    Composition of Area 17

    Comparison of the Architectonics of Areas 17 and 18 and Identification of Borders

    Visual Maps in Areas 17 and 18

    Circuitry and Signal Processing in Areas 17 and 18

    Visually Guided Behavior

    Synthesis

    Recent Challenges to the Primacy of Areas 17 and 18

    Epilogue

    2 Optical Imaging of Functional Architecture in Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Introduction

    Methodological Aspects of Optical Imaging

    Optical Imaging of Functional Maps in Cat Visual Cortex

    Relationships between Columnar Systems

    Comparison with the Functional Architecture in Other Species

    Concluding Remarks

    3 2-Deoxyglucose Architecture of Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Introduction

    Orientation Domains

    Ocular Dominance Domains

    Spatial Frequency Domains

    Development and Experience-Dependent Changes of Cortical Maps

    Advantages and Disadvantages of the 2-DG Technique

    Outlook

    4 Functional Mapping in The Cat Primary Visual Cortex Using High Magnetic Fields

    Introduction

    Limitations of Current Techniques, or Why We Need Another Mapping Technique

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Functional MRI of the Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Conclusions

    5 Relationships of LGN Afferents and Cortical Efferents to Cytochrome Oxidase Blobs

    Parallel Processing in the Mammalian Visual System

    Organization of CO Staining in Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Geniculate Inputs to the CO Blobs

    Molecular Markers for Other Blob/Interblob Inputs

    Outputs of the CO Blobs

    Projections to Area 19

    Comparisons with Primates

    Conclusions

    6 INFLUENCE OF TOPOGRAPHY AND OCULAR DOMINANCE ON THE FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF CALLOSAL CONNECTIONS IN CAT STRIATE CORTEX

    Introduction

    The Vertical Meridian Rule

    Callosal Fibers Interlink Cortical Sites That are in Retinotopic, Rather Than Anatomical, Correspondence

    Interhemispheric Correlated Activity Guides Callosal Development

    Summary and Concluding Remarks

    7 Essential and Sustaining LGN Inputs to Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Introduction

    The Reversible Inactivation Technique

    Two Circuits in Area 17

    Area 18: More Integrative Than Area 17

    Functional Architecture of Visual Cortex

    8 Integration of Thalamic Inputs to Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Introduction

    Simple Receptive Fields

    Numerical Aspects of the Geniculocortical Projection

    Feedforward (Thalamic) Connections and Simple Cell Responses

    Intrinsic Connections and Simple-Cell Responses

    Conclusions

    9 The Emergence of Direction Selectivity in Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Overview

    Directional Tuning: The Basics

    Computational Requirements for Direction Selectivity

    Biological Instantiation of Computational Principles

    Origins of Cortical Timings: The Lagged/Nonlagged Cell Model

    Comparison with Recent Models

    Intracortical Inhibition: Experimental Evidence

    How are Inputs Combined?

    Intralaminar and Interlaminar Interactions

    Summary and Conclusions

    Future Directions

    10 Long-Range Intrinsic Connections in Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Introduction

    Historical Overview

    Layout of Long-Range Horizontal Connections

    Types of Neurons Forming Long-Range Horizontal Connections

    Synaptic Targets of Long-Range Intrinsic Connections

    Divergence and Convergence of Long-Range Horizontal Connections at the Ultrastructural Level

    Topographic Relations between Long-Range Intrinsic Connections and Functional Cortical Maps

    Possible Functions

    Plasticity of Long-Range Connections in the Adult

    Conclusions

    11 Pharmacological Studies on Receptive Field Architecture

    Receptive Field Architecture in Cat Striate Cortex Cells

    Specific Local Synaptic Input Systems to Striate Cortex Cells

    Striate Cortical Network Effects on RF Properties

    12 Orientation Selectivity and its Modulation by Local and Long-Range Connections in Visual Cortex

    Overview and Introduction

    Contributions of Local Cortical Excitation to the Generation of Orientation Selectivity: The Emergent Model

    Effect of Long-Range Connections on Orientation-Specific Responses

    Supraoptimal Responses and Dynamic Properties of Recurrent Inhibition

    Short-Term Plasticity of Orientation Tuning Induced by Pattern Adaptation

    Concluding Remarks

    13 Response Synchronization, Gamma Oscillations, and Perceptual Binding in Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Introduction

    Two Complimentary Strategies for the Representation of Relations: Smart Neurons and Assemblies

    A Need for Dynamic Response Selection and Binding

    Dynamic Grouping Mechanisms

    Predictions

    Response Synchronization in Striate Cortex

    Response Synchronization, Mechanisms and Properties

    Relation between Response Synchronization and Perceptual Phenomena

    Dependency on Central States and Attention

    Plasticity of Synchronizing Connections

    The Impact of Synchronized Responses

    Gamma Oscillations and Visual Perceptions in Human Subjects

    Stimulus Locked Synchronization and Perceptual Grouping

    Conclusions

    14 The Special Relationship between Β Retinal Ganglion Cells and Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Introduction

    Identification of Subsystems and Connections

    Visual System Connections and Function in the Newborn

    Visual Cortex Lesions

    Factors Linked to Survival and Death of Ganglion Cells

    Primates

    Summary

    15 Primary Visual Cortex within the Cortico-Cortico-Thalamic Network

    Introduction

    Function

    Structure

    Structure-Function Relationships

    Conclusions

    16 Behavioral Analyses of the Contributions of Cat Primary Visual Cortex to Vision

    Introduction

    The Behavioral Consequences of Lesions of the Visual Cortex

    Insights Gained from Cats Reared with Selected Forms of Early Visual Deprivation

    Conclusions

    Index

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