Test and Measurement: Know It All


  • Jon Wilson, Principal Consultant, The Dynamic Consultant, CA, USA
  • Stuart Ball, Embedded Systems consultant and author
  • Creed Huddleston, Real-Time by Design, LLC, Raleigh, NC, USA
  • Edward Ramsden, Senior Engineer, Lattice Semiconductor, Hillsboro, OR, USA
  • Dogan Ibrahim, Traffic Control Systems Unit, South Bank University, UK, and lecturer at the Department of Computer Information Systems, Near East University, Lefkosa, Cyprus

The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!Field Application engineers need to master a wide area of topics to excel. The Test and Measurement Know It All covers every angle including Machine Vision and Inspection, Communications Testing, Compliance Testing, along with Automotive, Aerospace, and Defense testing.
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Field Application Engineers; Electronics Engineers; Communications Engineers


Book information

  • Published: September 2008
  • Imprint: NEWNES
  • ISBN: 978-1-85617-530-2

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Fundamental of measurement1.1 Introduction1.2 Fundamental conceptsBibliographyChapter 2 Sensors and Transducers2.1 Basic Sensor Technology2.2 Sensor Systems2.3 Application Considerations2.4 Sensor Characteristics2.5 System Characteristics2.6 Instrument Selection2.7 Data Acquisition and Readout2.8 Installation2.9 Measurement Issues and CriteriaChapter 3. Data acquisition hardware and software3.1 ADCs3.2 Types of ADCs3.3 ADC Comparison3.4 Sample and Hold3.5 Real Parts3.6 Microprocessor Interfacing3.7 Clocked Interfaces3.8 Serial Interfaces3.9 Multichannel ADCs3.10 Internal Microcontroller ADCs3.11 Codecs3.12 Interrupt Rates3.13 Dual-Function Pins on Microcontrollers3.14 Design ChecklistChapter 4. Overview of measurement systems4.1 Transducers4.2 Methods of measurement4.3 Sensitivity4.4 Zero, linearity and span4.5 Resolution, hysteresis and error4.6 Fourier analysis4.7 Dynamic response4.8 PID control4.9 Accuracy and repeatability4.10 Mechanical modelsChapter 5 Acceleration, Shock and Vibration5.1 Introduction5.2 Technology Fundamentals5.3 Selecting and Specifying Accelerometers5.4 Applicable Standards5.5 Interfacing and Designs5.6 Machinery Vibration Monitoring SensorsChapter 6 Flow6.1 General6.2 Differential pressure flowmeters6.3 Turbine flowmeters6.4 Vortex shedding flowmeters6.5 Electromagnetic flowmeters6.6 Ultrasonic flowmeters6.7 Hot wire anemometer6.8 Mass flowmetersChapter 7 Temperature7.1 Temperature scales7.2 Types of temperature sensors7.3 Measurement errors7.4 Selecting a temperature sensor7.5 Thermocouple Temperature Sensors7.6 RTD Temperature Sensors7.7 Thermistor Temperature Sensors7.8 Integrated Circuit Temperature SensorsChapter 8 Pressure8.1 Introduction8.2 SI and other units8.3 Absolute, gauge and differential pressure modes8.4 Primary standards8.5 Spinning ball gauge standard8.6 Secondary standards8.7 Working standards8.8 Pressure measuring instruments8.9 Calibration of pressure standards and instrumentsBibliographyChapter 9. Position9.1 Mechanical switch9.2 Potentiometric sensor9.3 Capacitive transducer9.4 LVDT9.5 Angular velocity transducer9.6 Position sensitive diode array9.7 Motion controlChapter 10 Strain gauges, loadcells and weighing10.1 Introduction10.2 Stress and strain10.3 Strain gauges10.4 Bridge circuits10.5 Load cells10.6 Weighing systemsChapter 11 Light11.1 Light11.2 Measuring light11.3 Standards of measurement11.4 Thermal detectors11.5 Light dependent resistor (LDR)11.6 Photodiode11.7 Other semiconductor photodetectors11.8 Optical detectors11.9 PhotomultiplierChapter 12 Signal Processing and Conditioning12.1 Conditioning Bridge CircuitsReferences12.2 Amplifiers for Signal ConditioningReferencesChapter 13 Interfacing and Data Communications13.1 Interfacing13.2 Input/Output ports13.3 Polling13.4 Interrupts13.5 Direct memory access (DMA)13.6 Serial port13.7 Serial port addresses13.8 Serial port registers13.9 Serial port registers and interrupts13.10 Serial port baud rate13.11 Serial port operation13.12 Parallel printer port13.13 Parallel port registers13.14 Parallel printer port operation13.15 Communications13.16 Byte to serial conversion13.17 RS232 interface13.18 Synchronisation13.19 UART (6402)13.20 Line drivers13.21 UART clock13.22 UART Master Reset13.23 Null modem13.24 Serial port BIOS services13.25 Serial port operation in BASIC13.26 Hardware handshaking13.27 RS48513.28 GPIB13.29 USB 13.30 TCP/IPChapter 14 Data acquisition software14.1 An overview of DA&C software14.2 Data acquisition and control in real time14.3 Implementing real-time systems on the PC14.4 Robustness, reliability and safetyChapter 15. Scaling and calibration15.1 Scaling of linear response curves15.2 Linearization15.3 Polynomial linearization15.4 Interpolation between points in a look-up table15.5 Interpolation vs. power-series polynomials15.6 Interactive calibration programs15.7 Practical issuesChapter 16. Synthetic instruments16.1 What is a Synthetic Instrument?16.2 History of Automated Measurement16.3 Synthetic Instruments Defined16.4 Advantages of Synthetic Instruments16.5 Synthetic Instrument Misconceptions16.6 Synthetic Measurement System Hardware Architectures16.7 System Concept—The CCC Architecture16.8 Hardware Requirements Traceability16.9 Stimulus16.10 Stimulus Digital Signal Processing16.11 Stimulus Triggering16.12 The Stimulus D/A16.13 Stimulus Conditioning16.14 Stimulus Cascade—Real-World Example16.15 Real-World Design: A Synthetic Measurement System16.16 Universal High-Speed RF Microwave Test System16.17 System Architecture16.18 DUT Interface16.19 Calibration16.20 Software Solutions16.21 ConclusionsChapter 17 Real-world measurement applications17.1 Precision Measurement and Sensor ConditioningReferencesChapter 18. Testing methods18.1 The Order-of-Magnitude Rule18.2 A Brief (Somewhat Apocryphal) History of Test18.3 Test Options18.4 SummaryChapter 19 Boundary Scan Techniques19.1 Latch-Scanning Arrangements19.2 Enter Boundary Scan19.3 Hardware Requirements19.4 Modes and Instructions19.5 Implementing Boundary Scan19.6 Partial-Boundary-Scan Testing19.7 Other Alternatives19.8 SummaryChapter 20 Inspection Test20.1 Striking a Balance 20.2 Post-Paste Inspection 20.3 Post-Placement/Post-Reflow 20.4 Summary Chapter 21 EMC fundamentals21.1 What is EMC?21.2 Compatibility between and within systemsChapter 22 Measuring RF emissions22.1 Emissions measuring instruments22.2 Transducers22.3 Sites and facilitiesChapter 23 Test methods23.1 Test set-up23.2 Test procedure23.3 Tests above 1GHz23.4 Military emissions tests23.5 Measurement uncertaintyChapter 24 Test planning24.1 The need for a test plan24.2 Contents of the test plan24.3 Immunity performance criteriaCHAPTER 25 Accelerated testing fundamentals25.1 Scenario One: A key physical property is wrong.25.2 Scenario Two: A primary failure mode of a product.25.3 Scenario Three: The Mean Time to Failure (MTTF).Chapter 26 HALT and FMVT26.1 A Typical HALT26.2 Hot Temperature Steps26.3 Cold Temperature Steps26.4 Ramp Rates26.5 Vibration26.6 Combined Run26.7 Business Structures26.8 Failure Mode Verification Testing (FMVT)26.9 Development FMVT26.10 More About Stress26.11 What can break the product?26.12 More About Failures26.13 More About Setup and Execution26.14 More on Data Analysis26.15 Comparison FMVT26.16 Method One: Time to First Failure26.17 Method Two: Failure Mode Progression Comparison26.18 FMVT Life Prediction – Equivalent Wear and Cycle Counting26.19 FMVT Warranty26.20 More on Vibration26.21 Reliability and Design Maturity26.22 Business ConsiderationsAppendix A: Standard InterfacesA.1 IEEE 1451.2A.2 4–20 ma Current LoopA.3 Fieldbus