Symbolic Logic and Mechanical Theorem Proving book cover

Symbolic Logic and Mechanical Theorem Proving

This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

Audience
Senior college students, and first-year graduate students studying mathematics.

Hardbound, 331 Pages

Published: May 1973

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-170350-9

Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    1. Introduction

    1.1 Artificial Intelligence, Symbolic Logic, and Theorem Proving

    1.2 Mathematical Background

    References

    2. The Propositional Logic

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Interpretations of Formulas in the Propositional Logic

    2.3 Validity and Inconsistency in the Propositional Logic

    2.4 Normal Forms in the Propositional Logic

    2.5 Logical Consequences

    2.6 Applications of the Propositional Logic

    References

    Exercises

    3. The First-Order Logic

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Interpretations of Formulas in the First-Order Logic

    3.3 Prenex Normal Forms in the First-Order Logic

    3.4 Applications of the First-Order Logic

    References

    Exercises

    4. Herbrand's Theorem

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Skolem Standard Forms

    4.3 The Herbrand Universe of a Set of Clauses

    4.4 Semantic Trees

    4.5 Herbrand's Theorem

    4.6 Implementation of Herbrand's Theorem

    References

    Exercises

    5. The Resolution Principle

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 The Resolution Principle for the Propositional Logic

    5.3 Substitution and Unification

    5.4 Unification Algorithm

    5.5 The Resolution Principle for the First-Order Logic

    5.6 Completeness of the Resolution Principle

    5.7 Examples Using the Resolution Principle

    5.8 Deletion Strategy

    References

    Exercises

    6. Semantic Resolution and Lock Resolution

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 An Informal Introduction to Semantic Resolution

    6.3 Formal Definitions and Examples of Semantic Resolution

    6.4 Completeness of Semantic Resolution

    6.5 Hyperresolution and the Set-of-Support Strategy: Special Cases of Semantic Resolution

    6.6 Semantic Resolution Using Ordered Clauses

    6.7 Implementation of Semantic Resolution

    6.8 Lock Resolution

    6.9 Completeness of Lock Resolution

    References

    Exercises

    7. Linear Resolution

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Linear Resolution

    7.3 Input Resolution and Unit Resolution

    7.4 Linear Resolution Using Ordered Clauses and the Information of Resolved Literals

    7.5 Completeness of Linear Resolution

    7.6 Linear Deduction and Tree Searching

    7.7 Heuristics in Tree Searching

    7.8 Estimations of Evaluation Functions

    References

    Exercises

    8. The Equality Relation

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Unsatisfiability under Special Classes of Models

    8.3 Paramodulation-An Inference Rule for Equality

    8.4 Hyperparamodulation

    8.5 Input and Unit Paramodulations

    8.6 Linear Paramodulation

    References

    Exercises

    9. Some Proof Procedures Based on Herbrand's Theorem

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 The Prawitz Procedure

    9.3 The V-Resolution Procedure

    9.4 Pseudosemantic Trees

    9.5 A Procedure for Generating Closed Pseudosemantic Trees

    9.6 A Generalization of the Splitting Rule of Davis and Putnam

    References

    Exercises

    10. Program Analysis

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 An Informal Discussion

    10.3 Formal Definitions of Programs

    10.4 Logical Formulas Describing the Execution of a Program

    10.5 Program Analysis by Resolution

    10.6 The Termination and Response of Programs

    10.7 The Set-of-Support Strategy and the Deduction of the Halting Clause

    10.8 The Correctness and Equivalence of Programs

    10.9 The Specialization of Programs

    References

    Exercises

    11. Deductive Question Answering, Problem Solving, and Program Synthesis

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Class A Questions

    11.3 Class B Questions

    11.4 Class C Questions

    11.5 Class D Questions

    11.6 Completeness of Resolution for Deriving Answers

    11.7 The Principles of Program Synthesis

    11.8 Primitive Resolution and Algorithm A (A Program-Synthesizing Algorithm)

    11.9 The Correctness of Algorithm A

    11.10 The Application of Induction Axioms to Program Synthesis

    11.11 Algorithm A (An Improved Program-Synthesizing Algorithm)

    References

    Exercises

    12. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Appendix A

    A.1 A Computer Program Using Unit Binary Resolution

    A.2 Brief Comments on the Program

    A.3 A Listing of the Program

    A.4 Illustrations

    References

    Appendix B

    Bibliography

    Index

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