Switchmode RF and Microwave Power Amplifiers


  • Andrei Grebennikov, Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, Ireland
  • Nathan Sokal, Design Automation, Auburndale, MA, USA
  • Marc Franco, RFMD, Greensboro, NC, USA

Power amplifiers guzzle power. At a time when there is considerable pressure to be more green and to reduce the costs of a system by developing technologies that are energy efficient, this book is particularly relevant because it focuses on energy efficient amplifiers, namely, switch mode amplifiers. These amplifiers are at the heart of cellular/wireless communications systems, being used for the transmitter but are also widely used for satellite and radar communications. This book gives engineers all they need to know to use RF and microwave power amplifiers, balancing theory with practical examples of implementation, enabling them to understand design issues and trade-offs and improve their future designs.
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RF/wireless and microwave engineers and designers; university researchers, graduate students


Book information

  • Published: June 2012
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-415907-5

Table of Contents

About the authors
1. Power amplifier design principles
1.1. Spectral-domain analysis
1.2. Basic classes of operation: A, AB, B, C
1.3. Load line and output impedance
1.4. Classes of operation based upon finite number of harmonics
1.5. Active device models
1.5.1. LDMOSFETs
1.5.2. GaAs MESFETs and GaN HEMTs
1.5.3. Low- and high-voltage HBTs
1.6. High-frequency conduction angle
1.7. Nonlinear effect of collector capacitance
1.8. Push-pull power amplifiers
1.9. Power gain and impedance matching
1.10. Load-pull characterization
1.11. Amplifier stability
1.12. Parametric oscillations
1.13. Bias circuits
1.14. Distortion fundamentals
1.14.1. Linearity
1.14.2. Time variance
1.14.3. Memory
1.14.4. Distortion of electrical signals
1.14.5. Types of distortion
1.14.6. Nonlinearity distortion analysis for sinusoidal signals- measures of nonlinearity distortion
2. Class-D power amplifiers
2.1. Switchmode power amplifiers with resistive load
2.2. Complementary voltage-switching configuration
2.3. Transformer-coupled voltage-switching configuration
2.4. Transformer-coupled current-switching configuration
2.5. Symmetrical current-switching configuration
2.6. Voltage-switching configuration with reactive load
2.7. Drive and transition time
2.8. Practical Class-D power amplifier implementation
2.9. Class-D for digital pulse-modulation transmitters
3. Class-F power amplifiers
3.1. Biharmonic and polyharmonic operation modes
3.2. Idealized Class-F mode
3.3. Class-F with maximally flat waveforms
3.4. Class-F with quarterwave transmission line
3.5. Effect of saturation resistance and shunt capacitance
3.6. Load networks with lumped elements
3.7. Load networks with transmission lines
3.8. LDMOSFET power amplifier design examples
3.9. Broadband capability of Class-F power amplifiers
3.10. Practical Class-F power amplifiers and applications
4. Inverse Class F
4.1. Biharmonic and polyharmonic operation modes
4.2. Idealized inverse Class-F mode
4.3. Inverse Class-F with quarterwave transmission line
4.4. Load networks with lumped elements
4.5. Load networks with transmission lines
4.6. LDMOSFET power amplifier design example
4.7. Examples of practical implementation
4.8. Inverse Class-F GaN HEMT power amplifiers for WCDMA systems
5. Class E with shunt capacitance
5.1. Effect of detuned resonant circuit
5.2. Load network with shunt capacitor and series filter
5.3. Matching with standard load
5.4. Effect of saturation resistance
5.5. Driving signal and finite switching time
5.6. Effect of nonlinear shunt capacitance
5.7. Optimum, nominal, and off-nominal Class-E operation
5.8. Push-pull operation mode
5.9. Load networks with transmission lines
5.10. Practical Class-E power amplifiers and applications
6. Class E with finite dc-feed inductance
6.1. Class-E with one capacitor and one inductor
6.2. Generalized Class-E load network with finite dc-feed inductance
6.3. Sub-harmonic Class E
6.4. Parallel-circuit Class E
6.5. Even-harmonic Class E
6.6. Effect of bondwire inductance
6.7. Load network with transmission lines
6.8. Operation beyond maximum Class-E frequency
6.9. Power gain
6.10. CMOS Class-E power amplifiers
7. Class E with quarterwave transmission line
7.1. Load network with parallel quarterwave line
7.2. Optimum load-network parameters
7.3. Load network with zero series reactance
7.4. Matching circuit with lumped elements
7.5. Matching circuit with transmission lines
7.6. Load network with series quarterwave line and shunt filter
7.7. Design example: 10-W 2.14-GHz Class-E GaN HEMT power amplifier with parallel quarterwave transmission line
8. Broadband Class E
8.1. Reactance compensation technique
8.1.1. Load networks with lumped elements
8.1.2. Load networks with transmission lines
8.2. Broadband Class E with shunt capacitance
8.3. Broadband parallel-circuit Class E
8.4. High-power RF Class-E power amplifiers
8.5. Microwave monolithic Class-E power amplifiers
8.6. CMOS Class-E power amplifiers
9. Alternative and mixed-mode high-efficiency power amplifiers
9.1. Class-DE power amplifier
9.2. Class-FE power amplifiers
9.3. Class-E/F power amplifiers
9.3.1 Symmetrical push-pull configurations
9.3.2 Single-ended Class-E/F3 mode
9.4. Biharmonic Class-EM power amplifier
9.5. Inverse Class-E power amplifiers
9.6. Harmonic tuning using load-pull techniques
9.7. Chireix outphasing power amplifiers
10. High-efficiency Doherty power amplifiers
10.1. Historical aspect and conventional Doherty architecture
10.2. Carrier and peaking amplifiers with harmonic control
10.3. Balanced, push-pull, and dual Doherty amplifiers
10.4. Asymmetric Doherty amplifiers
10.5. Multistage Doherty amplifiers
10.6. Inverted Doherty amplifiers
10.7. Integration
10.8. Digitally driven Doherty amplifier
10.9. Multiband and broadband capability
11. Predistortion linearization techniques
11.1. Modeling of RF power amplifiers with memory
11.2. Predistortion linearization fundamentals
11.2.1. Introduction
11.2.2. Memoryless predistorter for octave-bandwidth amplifiers
11.2.3. Predistorter with memory for octave-bandwidth amplifiers
11.2.4. Postdistortion
11.3. Analog predistortion implementation
11.3.1. Introduction
11.3.2. Reflective predistorters
11.3.3. Transmissive predistorters
11.4. Digital predistortion implementation
11.4.1. Introduction
11.4.2. Principles of memoryless digital predistortion
11.4.3. Digital predistortion adaptation
11.4.4. Digital predistorter performance
12. Computer-aided design of switchmode power amplifiers
12.1. HB-PLUS program for half-bridge and full-bridge direct-coupled voltage-switching Class-D and Class-DE circuits
12.2. HEPA-PLUS CAD program for Class E
12.3. Effect of Class-E load-network parameter variations
12.4. HB-PLUS CAD examples for Class D and Class DE
12.5. HEPA-PLUS CAD example for Class E
12.6. Class-E power amplifier design using SPICE
12.7. ADS circuit simulator and its applicability to switchmode Class E
12.8. ADS CAD design example: high-efficiency two-stage 1.75-GHz MMIC HBT power amplifier