Surface Production Operations, Volume 1 book cover

Surface Production Operations, Volume 1

Design of Oil Handling Systems and Facilities

The latest edition of this best-selling title is updated and expanded for easier use by engineers. New to this edition is a section on the fundamentals of surface production operations taking up topics from the oilfield as originally planned by the authors in the first edition. This information is necessary and endemic to production and process engineers. Now, the book offers a truly complete picture of surface production operations, from the production stage to the process stage with applications to process and production engineers.

Audience
petroleum engineers, plant engineers, process engineers, oilfield surface production managers, field engineers, mechanical engineers

Hardbound, 768 Pages

Published: August 2007

Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 978-0-7506-7853-7

Contents

  • CHAPTER 1: THE PRODUCTION FACILITYINTRODUCTIONMAKING THE EQUIPMENT WORKFACILITIES TYPESCHAPTER 2: CHOOSING A PROCESSINTRODUCTIONCONTROLLING THE PROCESSOperation of a Control ValvePressure ControlLevel ControlTemperature ControlFlow ControlBASIC SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONWellhead and ManifoldSeparationINITIAL SEPARATOR PRESSURESTAGE SEPARATIONSELECTION OF STAGESFIELDS WITH DIFFERENT FLOWING TUBING PRESSUREDETERMINING SEPARATOR OPERATING PRESSURESTWO-PHASE vs THREE-PHASE SEPARATORSProcess FlowsheetOil Treating and StorageLease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT)PumpsWater TreatingCompressorGas DehydrationWELL TESTING GAS LIFTOFFSHORE PLATFORM CONSIDERATIONSOverviewModular ConstructionEquipment ArrangementCHAPTER 3: BASIC PRINCIPLESINTRODUCTIONBASIC OIL-FIELD CHEMISTRYElements, Compounds, and MixturesAtomic and Molecular WeightBASIC HYDROCARBON NOMENCLATUREParaffin Series (CnH2n+2)Olefin or Ethylene Series (Alkenes): (CnH2n)Acetylenie or Alkyne Series : (CnH2n-2)Diolefins: (CnH2n-2)Aromatic (Benzene) Series: (CnH2n-6)Napthene Series: (CnH2n)PARAFFIN HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDSACID, BASES, AND SALTSANALYS OF MIXTURESPHYSICAL OF MIXTURESPHYSICAL PROPERTIESMolecular Weight and Apparent Molecular WeightGas Specific Gravity and DensityNon-Ideal Gas Equations of StateReduced PropertiesLiquid Density and Specific GravityViscosityGAS VISCOSITYLIQUID VISCOSITYOIL¡VWATER MIXTURES¡¦ VISCOSITYPHASE BEHAVIORSystem ComponentsSingle-Component SystemsMulticomponent SystemsLean Gas SystemsRich Gas SystemsRetrograde SystemsApplication of Phase EnvelopesBLACK OIL RESERVOIRPhase Diagram CharacteristicsField CharacteristicsLaboratory AnalysisVOLATILE OIL RESERVOIRPhase Diagram CharacteristicsField CharacteristicsLaboratory AnalysisRECTROGRADE GAS RESERVOIRPhase Diagram CharacteristicsField CharacteristicsLaboratory AnalysisWET GAS RESERVOIRPhase Diagram CharacteristicsField CharacteristicsLaboratory AnalysisDRY GAS RESERVOIRPhase Diagram CharacteristicsINFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGNFLASH CALCULATIONSCHARACTERIZING THE FLOW STREAMMolecular Weight of GasGas Flow RateLiquid Molecular WeightSpecific Gravity of LiquidThe Flow StreamAPPROXIMATE FLASH CALCULATIONSOTHER PROPERTIESNOMENCLATUREREFERENCESREVIEW QUESTIONSEXERCISESCHAPTER 4: TWO¡VPHASE OIL AND GAS SEPARATIONINTRODUCTIONPhase EquilibriumFactors Affecting SeparationFUNCTIONAL SECTION OF A GAS¡VLIQUID SEPARATORInlet Diverter SectionLiquid Collection SectionGravity Settling SectionMist Extractor SectionEQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONHorizontal SeparatorsVertical SeparatorsSpherical SeparatorsOther ConfigurationsCENTIFUGAL SEPARATORSVENTURI SEPARATORSDOUBLE¡VBARREL HORIZONTAL SEPARATORSHORIZONTAL SEPARATOR WITH A ¡§BOOT¡¨ OR ¡§WATER POT¡¨FILTER SEPARATORSSCRUBBERSSLUG CATCHERSELECTION CONSIDERATIONSVESSEL INTERNALSInlet DivertersWave BreakersDefoaming PlatesVortex BreakerStilling WellSand Jets and DrainsMist ExtractorsINTRODUCTIONGRAVITATIONAL AND DRAG FORCES ACTING ON A DROPLETIMPINGEMENT-TYPEInertial ImpactionDirect InterceptionDiffusionBAFFLESWIRE-MESHMICRO-FIBEROTHER CONFIGURATIONSFINAL SELECTIONPOTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMSFoamy CrudesParaffinSandLiquid CarryoverGas Blow-byLiquid SlugsDESIGN THEORYSettlingDroplet SizeRetention TimeLiquid Re-EntrainmentSEPARATOR DESIGNHorizontal Separators Sizing: Half-FullGas Capacity ConstraintLIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINTSEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTHSLENDERNESS RATIOProcedure for Sizing Horizontal Separators: Half-FullHorizontal Separators Sizing Other Than Half-FullGAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINTLIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINTVertical Separators SizingGAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINTSEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTHSLENDERNESS RATIOProcedure for Sizing Vertical SeparatorsEXAMPLESExample 4-1: Sizing a vertical separator (field units)Example 4-2: Sizing a vertical separator (SI units)Example 4-3: Sizing a horizontal separator (field units)Example 4-4: Sizing a horizontal separator (SI units)NOMENCLATUREREFERENCESREVIEW QUESTIONSEXERCISESCHAPTER 5: THREE-PHASE OIL AND WATER SEPARATIONINTRODUCTIONEQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONHorizontal SeparatorsFree-Water KnockoutFlow SplitterHorizontal Three-Phase Separator with Liquid ¡¨Boot¡¨Vertical SeparatorsSELECTION CONSIDERATIONSVESSEL INTERNALSCoalescing PlatesTurbulent Flow CoalescersPOTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMSEmulsionsDESIGN THEORYGas SeparationOil/Water SettlingWater Droplet Size in OilOil Droplet Size in WaterRetention TimeSEPARATOR DESIGNHorizontal Separators Sizing: Half-FullGAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINTRETENTION TIME CONSTRAINTSETTLING WATER DROPLETS FROM OIL PHASESEPARATING OIL DROPLET FROM WATER PHASESEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTHSLENDERNESS RATIOProcedure for Sizing Three-Phase Horizontal Separators: Half-FullHorizontal Separators Sizing Other Than Half-FullGAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINTRETENTION TIME CONSTRAINTSETTLING EQUATION CONSTRAINTVertical Separators SizingGAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINTSETTLING WATER DROPLETS FROM OIL PHASERETENTION TIME CONSTRAINTSEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTHSLENDERNESS RATIOProcedure for Sizing Three-Phase Vertical SeparatorsEXAMPLESExample 5-1: Sizing a vertical three-phase separator (field units)Example 5-2: Sizing a vertical three-phase separator (SI units)Example 5-3: Sizing a horizontal three-phase separator (field units)Example 5-4: Sizing a horizontal three-phase separator (SI units)NOMENCLATUREREFERENCESREVIEW QUESTIONSEXERCISESCHAPTER 6: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELSINTRODUCTIONDESIGN CONSIDERATIONSDesign TemperatureDesign PressureMaximum Allowable Stress ValuesDetermining Wall ThicknessCorrosion AllowanceINSPECTION PROCEDURESESTIMATING VESSEL WEIGHTSSPECIFICATION AND DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELSPressure Vessel SpecificationsShop DrawingsNozzlesVortex BreakerManwaysVessel SupportsLadder and PlatformPressure Relief DevicesCorrosion ProtectionEXAMPLESExample 6-1: Determining the weight of an FWKO vessel (field units)REFERENCEREVIEW QUESTIONSEXERCISESCHAPTER 7: CRUDE OIL TREATING SYSTEMINTRODUCTIONEQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONFree-Water KnockoutsGun Barrel Tanks with Internal and External Gas BootsExample 7-1: Determination of external water leg heightHorizontal Flow TreatersHeatersINDIRECT FIRED HEATERSDIRECT FIRED HEATERSWATER HEAT RECOVERYHEATER SIZINGHeater-TreatersVERTICAL HEATER-TEATERSCOALESCING MEDIAHORIZONTAL HEATER-TREATERSELECTROSTATIC HEATER-TREATERSOIL DEHYDRATORSHEATER-TREATERS SIZINGEMULSION TREATING THEORYIntroductionsEmulsionsDIFFERENTIAL DENSITYSIZE OF WATER DROPLETSVISCOSITYINTERFACIAL TENSIONPRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF EMULSIFYING AGENTSWATER SALINITYAGE OF THE EMULSIONAGITATIONEmulsifying AgentsDemulsifiersBOTTLE TESTFIELD TRIALFIELD OPTIMIZATIONCHANGING THE DEMULSIFIERDEMULSIFIER TROUBLESHOOTINGEMULSION TREATING METHODSGeneral ConsiderationsChemical AdditionAMOUNT OF CHEMICALBOTTLE TEST CONSIDERATIONSWater Dropout RateSludgeInterfaceWater TurbidityOil ColorCentrifuge ResultsCHEMICAL SELECTIONSettling Tank or ¡§Gun Barrel¡¨Vertical Heater-TreaterHorizontal Heater-TreaterSettling TimeCoalescenceViscosityHeat EffectElectrostatic CoalescersWater Droplet Size and Retention TimeTREATER EQUIPMENT SIZINGGeneral ConsiderationsHeat Input RequiredGravity Separation ConsiderationsSettling EquationsHORIZONTAL VESSELSVERTICAL VESSELSGUNBARRELSHORIZONTAL FLOW TREATERSRetention Time EquationsHORIZONTAL VESSELSVERTICAL VESSELSGUNBARRELSHORIZONTAL FLOW TREATERSWater Droplet SizeDESIGN PROCEDUREGeneral Design ProcedureDesign Procedure for Vertical Heater-Treaters and Gunbarrels (Wash Tank with Internal/External Gas Boot)Design Procedure for Horizontal Heater-TreatersDesign Procedure for Horizontal Flow TreatersEXAMPLESExample 7-1: Sizing a horizontal treater (field units)Example 7-2: Sizing a horizontal treater (SI units)Example 7-3: Sizing a vertical treater (field units)Example 7-4: Sizing a vertical treater (SI units)PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONSGunbarrels with Internal/External Gas BootHeater-TreatersElectrostatic Heater-TreatersNOMENCLATUREREFERENCESREVIEW QUESTIONSEXERCISESCHAPTER 8: OIL DESALTINGINTRODUCTIONTHEORYProcess DescriptionMixingSingle-Stage DesaltingTwo-Stage DesaltingMultistage DesaltingEQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONDesaltersMixing EquipmentMANUAL GLOBE VALVESMIXING VALVESSTATIC MIXERSMECHANICAL MIXERSDOWNSTREAM COALESCENCEDESIGN PROCEDUREProcess SelectionSingle-Stage Desalter Design ProcedureTwo-Stage Desalter Design ProcedureEXAMPLESExample 8-1: Single-stage desalter design example (field units)Example 8-2: Multistage desalter design example (field units)Example 8-3: Single-stage desalter design example (SI units)Example 8-4: Two-stage desalter design example (SI units)Example 8-5: Multistage desalter design example (SI units)NOMENCLATUREREFERENCESREVIEW QUESTIONSEXERCISESCHAPTER 9: PRODUCED WATER TREATING SYSTEMSINTRODUCTIONSDISPOSAL STANDARDSOffshore OperationsOnshore OperationsCHARECTERISTICS OF PRODUCED WATERDissolved SolidsPrecipitated Solids (Scales)CALCIUM CARBONATE (CaCO3)CALCIUM SULFATE (CaSO4)IRON SULFIDE (FeS2)BARIUM AND STRONTIUM SULFATE (BaSO4 AND SrSO4)SCALE REMOVALCONTROLLING SCALE USING CHEMICAL INHIBITORSSand and Other Suspended SolidsDissolved GasesOil-in-Water EmulsionsDissolved Oil ConcentrationsDispersed OilToxicantsNaturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)BacteriaAEROBICANAEROBICFACULTATIVESYSTEM DESCRIPTIONTHEORYGravity SeparationCoalescenceDispersionFloatationEQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION AND SIZINGSkim Tanks and Skim VesselsCONFIGURATIONSVerticalHorizontalPRESSURE vs ATMOSPHERIC VESSELSRETENTION TIMEPERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONSSKIMMER SIZING EQUATIONSHorizontal Cylindrical Vessel: Half-FullHorizontal Rectangular Cross-Sectional SkimmerVertical Cylindrical SkimmerCoalescersPLATE COALESCERSPARALLEL PLATE INTERCEPTOR (PPI)CORRUGATED PLATE INTERCEPTOR (CPI)CROSS-FLOW DEVICESPERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONSSELECTION CRITERIACOALESCER SIZING EQUATIONSCPI SIZINGCROSS-FLOW DEVICE SIZINGExample 9-1: Determining the dispersed oil content in the effluent water from a CPI plate separatorOil/Water/Sediment Coalescing SeparatorsOIL/WATER/SEDIMENT SIZINGPERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONSSkimmer/CoalescersMATRIX TYPELOOSE MEDIAPERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONSPrecipitators/Coalescing FiltersFree-Flow Turbulent Coalescers (SP Packs)PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONSFlotation UnitsDISSOLVED GAS UNITSDISPERSED GAS UNITSHydraulic Induced UnitsMechanical Induced UnitsOther ConfigurationsSIZING DISPERSED GAS UNITSPERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONSHydrocyclonesGENERAL CONSIDERATIONSOPERATING PRINCIPLESSTATIC HYDROCYCLONESOil Drop SizeDifferential Specific GravityInlet TemperatureInlet Flow RateDYNAMIC HYDROCYCLONESReject FlowRotational SpeedSELECTION CRITERIA AND APPLICATION GUIDELINESSIZING AND DESIGNDisposal PilesDISPOSAL PILE SIZINGSkim PilesSKIM PILE SIZINGDRAIN SYSTEMINFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGNEffluent QualityProduced Water Flow RateSpecific Gravity of Produced WaterWastewater Viscosity at Flowing TemperaturesConcentration of Oil in Water to Be TreatedSpecific Gravity of Oil at Flowing TemperatureParticle Size Distribution Curve for Oil Droplets in the Produced WaterDesign Rainfall RateFlow Rate for Wash DownParticle Size Distribution Curve for ¡§Free Oil¡¨ Droplets in Deck DrainageConcentration of Soluble Oil at Discharge ConditionsINFLUENT WATER QUALITYProduced WaterSoluble WaterDeck DrainageEQUIPMENT SELECTION PROCEDUREEQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONSkim TankSP PackCPI SeparatorCross-Flow DeviceFlotation CellDisposal PileExample 9-2: Design the produced water treatingsystem for the data givenNOMENCLATUREREFERENCESREVIEW QUESTIONSEXERCISECHAPTER 10: WATER INJECTIONINTRODUCTIONSOLID REMOVAL THEORYRemoval of Suspended Solids from WaterGravity SettlingFlotation UnitsFiltrationINERTIAL IMPACTIONDIFFUSIONAL INTERCEPTIONDIRECT INTERCEPTIONFILTER TYPESNonfixed-Pore Structure MediaFixed-Pore Structure MediaSurface MediaSummary of Filter TypesREMOVAL RATINGSNominal RatingAbsolute RatingBeta (ƒÒ) RatingCHOOSING THE PROPER FILTERNature of FluidsFlow RateTemperaturePressure DropSurface AreaVoid VolumeDegree of FiltrationPrefiltrationCoagulants and FlocculationGAS REMOVAL THEORY Oxygen ScavengersGas Stripping¡XO2Gas Stripping¡XH2SVacuum De-aerationOther OptionsOXYGEN AND/OR CHLORINE OXIDATIONSULFUR OXIDATION IN BACTERIAMEASURING WATER COMPATIBILITYSOLIDS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONGravity Settling TanksHorizontal Cylindrical Gravity SettlersHorizontal Rectangular Cross-Sectional Gravity SettlersVertical Cylindrical Gravity SettlersPlate CoalescersHydrocyclonesCentrifugesFlotation UnitsDisposable Cartridge FiltersBackwashable Cartridge FiltersGranular Media FiltersDiatomateous Earth FiltersChemical Scavenging EquipmentGAS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONGas Stripping ColumnsCo-Current Stripping in PipelinesVacuum De-aeration ColumnsEffect of Other Dissolved Gases on Gas Stripping and Vacuum De-aerationDESIGN PROCEDUREEquipment SelectionEquipment SpecificationsEXAMPLESExample 10-1: Chemical scavengingExample 10-2: Gas strippingExample 10-3: Vacuum de-aerationExample 10-4: Vacuum de-aeration with nitrogen presentExample 10-5: Water injection systemNOMENCLATUREREFERENCES CHAPTER 11: CRUDE STABILIZATIONINTRODUCTIONTHEORY OF CRUDE STABILIZATIONGeneralPhase EquilibriumFlash CalculationDew PointBubble PointMultistage SeparationINITIAL SEPARATOR PRESSURESTAGE SEPARATIONSELECTION OF STAGECrude Oil TreatersCrude Oil StabilizeCOLD FEED STABILIZECRUDE STABILIZE WITH REFLUXKey ComponentsReid Vapor PressureComponent RecoveryColumn ConstraintsEQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONStabilizer ColumnStabilizer ReboilerStabilizer Bottom Product CoolerStabilizer Reflux SystemsStabilizer Feed CoolerStabilizer Feed HeaterDESIGN PROCEDUREMultistage Separator DesignMULTISTAGE SEPARATOR DESIGN PROCEDURECrude Oil Treater DesignCrude Oil Stabilizer DesignEXAMPLESExample 11-1: Multistage separation design example (field units)Example 11-2: Multistage separation design example (SI units)Example 11-3: Crude stabilization design example (field units)Example 11-4: Crude stabilization design example (SI units)NOMENCLATUREREFERENCESREVIEW QUESTIONSEXERCISEGLOSSARY OF TERMSAPPENDIX A: DEFINITION OF KEY WATER TREATING TERMSAPPENDIX B: WATER SAMPLING TECHNIQUESAPPENDIX C: OIL CONCENTRATION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

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