Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media


  • Gerd Brunner, Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, Department of Chemical Engineering, Eissendorfer Strasse 38, D-21073 Hamburg, Germany

Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of properties, and other advantageous properties of supercritical fluids led to innovative technologies. More than 100 plants of production size are now in operation worldwide in the areas of process and production technology, environmental applications, and particle engineering. New processes are under research and development in various fields.

This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany. It is based on the research program "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the "GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik" (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers).

This research program provided an immensely valuable platform for exchange of knowledge and experience. More than 50 young researchers were involved contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth. The results of this innovative research are described in this book.

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Institutions; professionals; students, working in the area of Supercritical Fluids.


Book information

  • Published: June 2004
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-51574-2


"Both researchers and students will find the book to be a valuable addition to their library and are certain to gain much insight into the "scientific and engineering fundamentals for new innovative processes using supercritical fluids" as well as their own research topics."

Table of Contents

1. Phase Equilibrium, Solubility
1.1. Determination of phase equilibria and comprehensive examination of the predictive capabilities of group contribution equations of state with a view to the synthesis of supercritical extraction processes (H. Gardeler, J. Gmehling).
1.2. Influence of additional components on the solvent power of supercritical ethylene (H. D&öuml;orr et al.).
1.3. High Pressure Phase Equilibria of Copolymer Solutions – Experiments and Correlation (C. Beyer, L.R. Oellrich).
1.4. Fluid phase equilibria of binary mixtures with supercritical solvents with in-situ concentration measurements by Raman spectroscopy (A. Stratmann, G. Schweiger).
1.5. High-pressure solubility measurement of solids in near- and supercritical fluids (D. Tuma et al.).
1.6. Phase behaviour of organic solid solutes and supercritical fluids with respect to particle formation processes (M. T&üuml;rk et al.).
1.7. Supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent for organic compounds present in aqueous salt solutions (G. Sieder, G. Maurer).
1.8. Correlation and prediction of high-pressure phase equilibria and related thermodynamic properties of simple fluid mixtures (U.K. Deiters).
1.9. Development of simplified equation of state for molecular fluids and their applications for the investigation of supercritical chain molecule solutions and mixtures (L.V. Yelash, T. Kraska).
1.10. Correlation of the solubility of low-volatile organic compounds in near- and supercritical fluids based on an accurate equation of state (Th. Kraska et al.).
1.11. Thermo- and fluiddynamic aspects of the hydrogenation of triglycerides and esters in presence of supercritical fluids (E. Weidner et al.).
1.12. Perturbed-Chain-SAFT: development of a new equation of state for simple, associating, multipolar and polymeric compounds (J. Gross, G. Sadowski).
1.13. Extractability of As-chelates and solubility of different Rh, Pd-chelates in supercritical fluid CO2B. (W. Wenclawiak et al.).
2. Properties
2.1. P,T-dependence of molecular mobility in supercritical fluids studied by high pressure NMR (T. Gro&bgr; et al.).
2.2. Phenomena in Countercurrent and Spray Processing Using Supercritical Fluids (R. Eggers, P. Jaeger).
3. Formulation
3.1. Synthesis of silica aerogels and their application as drug delivery system (I. Smirnova, W. Arlt).
3.2. Investigation and Modelling of the Gas-Antisolvent Process (A. Weber et al.).
3.3. Formation of nanoscale drugs by Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS): Experimental and theoretical investigations (M. T&üuml;rk et al.).
4. Extraction
4.1. Separation efficiency and axial mixing in packed high pressure extraction columns (O. Becker, G. Heydrich).
4.2. Separation of organic compounds from aqueous solutions by means of supercritical carbon dioxide (G. Brunner and M. Budich).
4.3. Supercritical SO2 for preparation of sulfur dioxide complexes and for recovery of precious metals from used catalysts (D.K. Breitinger et al.).
5. Reactions
5.1. Polymerizations in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Surfactants, Micelle Formation, and Heterophase Polymerization (W. Steffen et al.).
5.2. The kinetics of the early stage of dispersion polymerization in su-percritical CO2 (U. Fehrenbacher, M. Ballauff).
5.3. Rate coefficients of free-radical polymerization in homogeneous fluid mixtures with carbon dioxide (S. Beuermann, M. Buback).
5.4. Ammonia as reagent or reaction medium for polymers (W. Mormann et al.).
5.5. Inorganic materials (metals, ceramics, glasses) under the influence of reactants in supercritical aqueous solutionsas well as Chemical reactions (partial oxidations, hydrolysis, dehydrations) under the influence of inorganic materials in supercritical aqueous solutions (H. Vogel et al.).