Supercritical Fluid Cleaning
Fundamentals, Technology and ApplicationsBy
- Samuel P. Sawan, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA
Although supercritial fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. The objective is to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It is particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It is also useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature. The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.
Scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics.
Hardbound, 306 Pages
Published: December 1998
Imprint: William Andrew
- 1. The Supercritical State 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Physical Transformation of Pure Substances 3.0 Critical Constants 4.0 Critical and Boiling Points 5.0 Supercritical State 6.0 Solvents and Antisolvents 7.0 Solubility Issues of Supercritical Fluids 8.0 Hildebrand Solubility Parameter 9.0 Carbon Dioxide 10.0 Candidates for Supercritical Fluids 11.0 Conclusions References2. Solubility in Supercritical Fluid Cleaning Abstract 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Contaminant Solubility 3.0 Models for Cleaning 4.0 Conclusion References3. Design for Cleanability 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Process Design Guidelines 3.0 Conclusions Appendix 1: Guidelines for Design of Parts for Cleanability Appendix 2: Vendor Process Contamination Checklist4. Dynamics of Particle Removal by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Abstract 1.0 Introduction 2.0 The Boundary Layer in Turbulent Flow Over a Plate 3.0 Adhesive Forces 4.0 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide 5.0 Conclusions References5. Surfactants and Microemulsions in Supercritical Fluids Abstract 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Microemulsion Structure 3.0 Microemulsions in Supercritical Fluids 4.0 Microemulsions in CO2 5.0 Supercritical Microemulsion Cleaning Processes 6.0 Kinetics of Cleaning 7.0 Recent Developments 8.0 Conclusions Acknowledgment References6. Evaluation of Supercritical Fluid Interactions with Polymeric Materials 1.0 Background 2.0 Sorption, Swelling and Dissolution of Carbon Dioxide in Polymers at Elevated Pressure 3.0 Thermal Properties 4.0 Mechanical Properties 5.0 Conclusions Acknowledgments References7. A Survey on the Use of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide as a Cleaning Solvent Abstract 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Experimental Procedure 3.0 Results and Discussion 4.0 Tables 5.0 Conclusion Acknowledgments References8. Precision Cleaning With Supercritical Fluid: A Case Study 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Precision Inertial Instruments 3.0 Advantages of Supercritical Fluids 4.0 System Acquisition 5.0 Process Development 6.0 Compatibility Testing 7.0 System Modifications 8.0 Production Implementation 9.0 Lessons Learned Acknowledgments References9. Scaleup Considerations 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Design Considerations 3.0 Dimensionless Variables 4.0 Principle of Similarity 5.0 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide System Scaleup Acknowledgments References10. Equipment Cost Considerations and Financial Analysis of Supercritical Fluid Processing 1.0 Cost Drivers 2.0 Cost of Ownership for SCF Cleaning Systems 3.0 Relative Cost of Ownership For SCF Versus other Cleaning System 4.0 Conclusions 5.0 Acknowledgment11. A Practical Guide to Supercritical Fluid Cleaning 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Solubility: Theoretical and Empirical 3.0 Transport 4.0 Reactor Design 5.0 Parts Drying 6.0 Summary Acknowledgments ReferencesIndex