Strategic Management for Hospitality and Tourism
- Fevzi Okumus, Associate Professor and Chair of Hospitality Services Department, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, The University of Central Florida, Orlando FL. US
- Levent Altinay, Reader in Strategic Management, Department of Hospitality, Leisure & Tourism, Oxford Brookes University
- Prakash Chathoth, Assistant Professor in the School of Hotel and Tourism Management, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
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Strategic Management in the International Hospitality Industry: content and process, is a vital text for all those studying cutting edge theories and views on strategic management. Unlike others textbooks in this area, it goes further than merely contextualising strategic management for hospitality and tourism, and avoids using a prescriptive, or descriptive approach. It looks instead, at the latest in strategic thinking and theories, and provides critical and analytical discussion as to how and if these models and theories can be applied to the industry, within specific contexts such as culture, profit and non-profit organisations.
- Cutting edge approach: applies advance and recent strategic management views into tourism and hospitality field.
- Critical treatment: provides critical discussions about whether and how strategic models/theories can be applied into the hospitality and tourism field.
- Sensitive to specific contexts: As the tourism and hospitality industry has become one of the largest industries worldwide, discusses how strategic management concepts can be applied in different cultures and profit and non-profit tourism organizations.
- With supporting case studies related to the strategy content, context and process, from international industries such as Radisson, McDonalds, Carnival Cruiselines and Disney, this text consist of five main sections: introduction, strategy content, strategy context, strategy process and cases. Each of the chapters within these sections has a thorough pedagogic structure consisting of a bulleted introduction, examples and vignettes, discussions points, exercises, case studies and further reading and web sites.
Strategic Management in the International Hospitality and Tourism Industry: content and process also provides online support material for tutors and students, in the form of guidelines for instructors on how to use the textbook, PowerPoint presentations and case studies plus additional exercises and web links for students.
Senior undergraduate and taught postgraduate students on travel, tourism, hospitality/hotel management programmes taking courses in strategic management/ business policy. It will also be a valuable source for practicing managers in the tourism and hospitality organizations. As the text is intended to be global in its focus, principal geographic markets are Europe, USA, Hong Kong and Australasia.
- Published: January 2010
- Imprint: BUTTERWORTH HEINEMANN
- ISBN: 978-0-7506-6522-3
Table of ContentsPart I INTRODUCTION TO STRATEGY Chapter 1 Introduction to Strategic Management This chapter will open the scene by providing a brief discussion on the historical origins of strategy, the writings of classic authors, the industrial organization model, the resource-based view. It will further discuss assumptions of dominant strategic management approaches. Based on these discussions, it will provide alternative definitions of strategy, strategic management and related terms. This chapter will also explain the bookâs approach and structure. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction2. Historical origins of strategy and strategic management3. Schools of thought on strategy and strategic management4. Overall aims of strategic management â creating a competitive advantage5. Defining key terms (strategy, strategic management, mission, vision, strategic decision, tactic, program etc).6. The bookâs approach and structure7. SummaryChapter 2 Strategic Management in Hospitality and Tourism This chapter will be devoted to examining and applying strategic management in the hospitality and tourism context. It will provide a brief review of the current level of strategy literature in the hospitality and tourism field and illustrate its limitations. This chapter will also discuss why tourism and hospitality organizations need strategy and strategic management and whether and how generic strategy models and theories can be applied in tourism and hospitality organizations. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction2. Strategy research in the tourism and hospitality field3. Why tourism and hospitality organizations need strategic management 4. Understanding the contexts (1). characteristics of hospitality and tourism organizations; (2). profit/non-profit tourism and hospitality organizations; and (3). national, regional and global tourism and hospitality organizations. 5. Applying strategy concepts and theories in hospitality and tourism organizations.6. Summary.PART II STRATEGY CONTEXTThe second part of the text seeks to establish the key dimensions of the external and internal contexts in which both the strategy content and the strategy process are embedded. The specific dynamics and nature of the hospitality and tourism industry and organizations are emphasised throughout.Chapter 3 The Hospitality and Tourism Industry Context This chapter is concerned with exploring approaches to the analysis of the external environment confronting hospitality and tourism organizations. The relevant theories, models and frameworks pertaining to the process of external analysis are introduced and explored in the specific context of hospitality and tourism. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction.2. Characterising the external environment.3. Understanding the macro-environment.4. The influence of industry structure and the task environment.5. The dynamics of competition and strategic groups.6. The external environment in the international perspective.7. Summary.8. Further reading.9. Case study questions.10. Case Study.Chapter 4 The Organizational Context In this chapter the emphasis is upon the importance of the organizationâs internal environment as an influence upon strategy formation and implementation. The importance of organization culture and leadership as key considerations is highlighted and discussed within the context of the international hospitality and tourism industry. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction.2. Characterising the internal environment.3. Understanding the internal environment.4. The influence of organizational structure5. The influence of organizational culture.6. The dynamics of leadership, intrapreneurship and direction.7. The organizational context in the international perspective.8. Summary.9. Further reading.10. Case study questions. 11. Case Study.PART III: STRATEGY CONTENT The third part of the text is concerned with exploring the varying levels of strategy content, the so-called âwhatâ of strategy. Three levels of strategy content are explored which, while ultimately linked, can be viewed as separate areas of strategic management decision-making. The importance of context as an influence upon strategy content is highlighted throughout the three chapters in the section.Chapter 5: Business level strategies.The first chapter in this section is concerned with exploring the issue of competitive strategy at the level of the strategic business unit (SBU). Particular emphasis is given to exploring the concept of generic strategies as the basis for creating superior value and ultimately a sustainable competitive advantage. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction2. The parameters of competitive strategy. 3. What is the basis of a good strategy? Outside in or inside out?4. Positioning and generic strategies.5. Resources, capabilities and competences.6. Business level strategy in the international perspective.7. Summary.8. Further reading.9. Case study questions.10. Case Study.Chapter 6: Corporate level strategies.This chapter explores the potential roles of the corporate centre and its relationship with SBUs. The core tension between coordination and responsiveness is highlighted and discussed. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction2. Corporate strategy and the search for added value3. The portfolio approach.4. The core competence approach5. Creating and sustaining the multibusiness advantage.6. Corporate level strategy in the international perspective7. Summary.8. Further reading.9. Case study questions.10. Case Study.Chapter 7: Network level strategies.The final chapter in Section III is concerned with the issue of inter-business or network level of strategy content. The central question explored here is the extent to which organizations should seek to develop cooperative arrangements when developing strategies. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction2. The issue of competition and cooperation.3. Strategic networks4. Franchising and management contracts.5. Consortia, brand co-affliations and other strategic alliances.6. Network level strategy in the international perspective.7. Summary.8. Further reading.9. Case study questions.10. Case Study.PART IV: STRATEGY PROCESS This part will provide discussions about the strategy process and there are three chapters entitled strategic planning or strategic intent, strategy formation and strategy implementation respectively. These three chapter topics do not constitute entirely separate subjects. In other words, they are not phases or stages that can be looked at and understood in isolation. They are strongly linked and greatly overlapping. They are selected because there have been ongoing debates on these issues.Chapter 8 Strategic Planning or Strategic Thinking This chapter will aim to disentangle the relationship and differences between the terms of strategic planning and strategic thinking. It will define and discuss strategic planning, strategic thinking, the paradox of logic and creativity and the impact of context on strategic thinking. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction2. The concept of strategic planning and strategic thinking3. The paradox of logic and creativity4. Impact of context on strategic thinking5. Strategic intent in international perspective6. Summary7. Further reading.8. Case study questions.9. Case Study.Chapter 9 Strategy FormationThis chapter will discuss how strategy development and implementation is viewed in different schools of thought. It will critically evaluate each viewâs assumptions and suggestions and provide some recommendations to be followed by tourism and hospitality organizations in their strategy formation process. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction2. An evaluation of different approaches to strategy formation a. The planning viewb. The emergent/learning view, c. The contingency viewd. The complexity viewe. The configurational view3. Strategy formation in international perspective4. Summary5. Further reading.6. Case study questions.7. Case Study.Chapter 10 Strategy Implementation and Change This chapter will be devoted to explaining how strategies (or strategic decisions) can be implemented and how changes can be managed. A number of implementation factors will be identified and the role and importance of each implementation factor will be discussed. The chapter will also evaluate magnitude and pace of strategic change. There will also be some discussion on potential barriers and resistance to strategy implementation and how they can be overcome. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction2. Strategy implementation and managing strategic change3. Strategy implementation factors a. The role and importance of each factor b. Interactions and relationships among these factorsc. Achieving coherence among these factors4. Barriers and resistance to strategy implementation and change8. Strategy implementation and change in international perspective9. Summary10. Further reading.11. Case study questions.12. Case Study.Part V: SYNTHESISChapter 11: Relating content, process and context This final chapter seeks to integrate the key themes explored in earlier chapters in an effort to provide readers with the holistic perspective that is inherent in effective strategic management practice. The proposed structure for this chapter:1. Introduction2. The challenge of strategic management3. The dynamic of content, process and context4. Sustaining competitiveness and the learning organization5. Future strategy challenges in international perspective6. Summary7. Further reading.8. Case study questions.9. Case Study.