Stable Nanoemulsions, 25
Self-Assembly in Nature and NanomedicineBy
- Joseph D'Arrigo, Cavitation-Control Technology, Inc., Connecticut, U.S.A.
Certain stable lipid nanoemulsions, existing in natural waters and certain artificial media, display - upon intravenous injection - a marked capability for rapid active targeting, both to tumors and to certain lesion sites. This category of lipid nanoemulsions contains no phospholipids, no proteins nor peptides, no carbohydrates, and no chemical modification of the lipophilic drugs is required; consequently it avoids various past problems reported for earlier versions of targeted nanoemulsions.The book covers in detail the underlying chemical and biochemical principles of stable lipid nanoemulsions as well as many current and potential applications in nanomedicine such as targeted chemotherapy. It is in harmony with goals of the current US National Nanotechnology Initiative, which include nanomedical approaches to drug delivery that focus on developing nanoscale particles to improve drug bioavailability i.e. often using targeted nanoparticles for delivering drugs with cell precision and less side effects.Despite the obvious practical importance to various fields including nanomedicine there is currently no comprehensive book available in the literature. The proposed book will effectively fill this gap.
Intended for graduate students, researchers and professionals concerned with chemistry, physics and biology in a wide variety of fields.
Hardbound, 496 pages
Published: May 2011
Part I. Natural Coated Microbubbles in the Biosphere
1. Occurrence of dilute gas-in-liquid emulsions in natural waters
2. Early work with aqueous carbohydrate gels
3. Comparison of aqueous soil extracts with carbohydrate gels
4. Characteristic glycopeptide fraction of natural microbubble surfactant
Part II. Physicochemical Properties of Natural Microbubble Surfactant
5. Ecological chemistry of microbubble surfactant
6. Surface properties of microbubble-surfactant monolayers
7. Structure of predominant surfactant components stabilizing natural microbubbles
8. Stable microbubbles in physiological fluids: competing hypotheses
Part III. Physicochemical Properties of Artificial Coated Microbubbles and Nanoparticles
9. Concentrated gas-in-liquid emulsions in artificial media. I. Demonstration by laser-light scattering
10. Concentrated gas-in-liquid emulsions in artificial media. II. Characterization by photon correlation spectroscopy
11. Concentrated gas-in-liquid emulsions in artificial media. III. Review of molecular mechanisms involved in microbubble stabilization
Part IV. Lipid-Coated Microbubbles and Related Lipid Nanoparticles in Biomedical Studies on Animals
12. Targeted imaging of tumors, and targeted cavitation therapy, with lipid-coated microbubbles (LCM)
13. Targeted drug-delivery therapy of tumors using LCM
14. Proposed mechanism of selective LCM uptake by tumor cells: role of lipoprotein receptor-mediated endocytic pathways
15. Endocytotic events versus particle size: multidisciplinary analyses demonstrate LCM sizes are mostly submicron
Part V. Self-Assembling Mixed-Lipid Microbubbles and Nanoparticles for Clinical Applications
16. LCM and nanoparticle subpopulations for drug delivery
17. Composition of LCM governing interplay with nanoparticle subpopulation
18. Targeted nanoparticle subpopulation: comparison with self-nanoemulsifying drug-delivery systems in pharmaceutical research
19. Clinical development of a "LCM/nanoparticle-derived" formulation: a nanoemulsion based upon "dispersed LMN"
20. Selected parenteral lipid nanoemulsions under clinical study: comparison concerning passive accumulation in tumors, active targeting of tumors, and validation status
21. Supplementary operational benefits concerning "LCM/nanoparticle-derived" formulations: relation to lipid-nanoemulsion structure
Part VI. "LCM/Nanoparticle-Derived" Nanoemulsions: Biological Lipid Polymorphism, and Receptor Mediated Endocytosis, used for Clinical Study
22. Biological lipid polymorphs: preferred cubic phase of "dispersed LMN"
23. Non-lamellar phase(s) facilitating membrane fusion: endocytosis of dispersed LMN
24. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of (mixed-lipid) dispersed LMN
25. Further chemotherapy with lipid nanoemulsions: targeting certain proliferative processes, as well as neoplasias, via "lipoprotein receptor"-mediated endocytosis
26. Related clinical trials and human epidemiological studies
27. Aspects of future R&D regarding targeted lipid nanoemulsions