# Spectroscopic Measurement

**An Introduction to the Fundamentals**

**By**

Electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, molecular spectroscopy, optics and radiation form the foundations of the field. On top of these rest the techniques applying the fundamentals (e.g. Emission Spectroscopy, Laser Induced Fluorescence, Raman Spectroscopy). This book contains the basic topics associated with optical spectroscopic techniques. About 40 major sources are distilled into one book, so researchers can read and fully comprehend specific optical spectroscopy techniques without visiting many sources.Optical diagnostics are widely used in combustion research. Ideas first proposed here are now applied in other fields, including reacting flows for materials production (CVD reactors, oxidation reactors and some plasma work), atmospheric sensing, measuring constituents of exhaled human breath (to indicate stress in airway passages and the lungs and hence,e.g., provide a very early indicator of lung cancer).Researchers not formally trained who apply spectroscopy in their research need the detail in this book to ensure accuracy of their technique or to develop more sophisticated measurements. Time is valuable and future research will benefit. Learning "on the fly" can involve direct information on a specific diagnostic technique rather than gaining the background necessary to go into further depth.

View full description### Audience

Researchers developing new diagnostics or new approaches; Graduate students in areas such as Mechanical Engineering;Senior-level flowfield researchers.Fields: combustion, reactor studies, plasma processing, atmospheric chemistry.For teaching in mechanical engineering, physical chemistry, chemical engineering, physics and materials.

### Book information

- Published: July 2002
- Imprint: ACADEMIC PRESS
- ISBN: 978-0-12-451071-5

### Reviews

"Spectroscopic Measurements: An Introduction to the Fundamentals by Mark A. Linne is the place where you find - and understand - key ingredients of modern combustion diagnostics. For many applications, optical diagnostics play an increasingly important role. However, only the most basic descriptions of the underlying physics are often found in journal articles or textbooks, providing little guidance to the graduate student or the combustion engineer who may wish to familiarize himself or herself with the quantitative aspects and procedures. For this purpose, Linne's book is a top address to review physical principles and necessary equations in a concise and well-organized form. I have used material from this book in an advanced spectroscopy class and found it a valuable complement to textbooks on spectroscopy and reviews on combustion diagnostics.

If you are the one to actually perform and evaluate a diagnostics experiment in a complex system like a combustion device, you will appreciate this book as a condensed reference for the related physics machinery - a first-of-its-kind document which guides you through the necessary steps and which spares you to convert formalisms from many different sources."

Katharina Kohse-Höinghaus, Professor of Physical Chemistry, Bielefeld University, Germany

### Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

Nomenclature

1 Introduction

1.1 Spectroscopic Techniques

1.2 Overview of the Book

1.3 How to Use This Book

1.4 Concluding Remarks and Warnings

2 A Brief Review of Statistical Mechanics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Maxwellian Velocity Distribution

2.3 The Boltzmann Energy Distribution

2.4 Molecular Energy Distributions

2.5 Conclusions

3 The Equation of Radiative Transfer

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Some Definitions

3.2.1 Geometric Terms

3.2.2 Spectral Terms

3.2.3 Relationship to Simple Laboratory Measurements

3.3 Development of the ERT

3.4 Implications of the ERT

3.5 Photon Statistics

3.6 Conclusions

4 Optical Electromagnetics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Maxwell's Equations in Vacuum

4.3 Basic Conclusions from Maxwell's Equations

4.4 Material Interactions

4.5 Brief Mention of Nonlinear Effects

4.6 Irradiance

4.7 Conclusions

5 The Lorentz Atom

5.1 Classical Dipole Oscillator

5.2 Wave Propagation Through Transmitting Media

5.3 Dipole Emission

5.3.1 Dipole Emission Formalism

5.3.2 Dipole Radiation Patterns

5.4 Conclusions

6 Classical Hamiltonian Dynamics

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Overview of Hamiltonian Dynamics

6.3 Hamiltonian Dynamics and the Lorentz Atom

6.4 Conclusions

7 An Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Historical Perspective

7.3 Additional Components of Quantum Mechanics

7.4 Postulates of Quantum Mechanics

7.5 Conclusions

8 Atomic Spectroscopy

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The One-Electron Atom

8.2.1 Definition of V

8.2.2 Approach to the SchrSdinger Equation

8.2.3 Introduction to Selection Rules and Notation

8.2.4 Magnetic Moment

8.2.5 Selection Rules, Degeneracy, and Notation

8.3 Multi-Electron Atoms

8.3.1 Approximation Methods

8.3.2 The Pauli Principle and Spin

8.3.3 The Periodic Table

8.3.4 Angular Momentum Coupling

8.3.5 Selection Rules, Degeneracy, and Notation

8.4 Conclusion

9 Molecular Spectroscopy

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Diatomic Molecules

9.2.1 Approach to the Schr6dinger Equation

9.2.2 Rotation-Vibration Spectra and Corrections to Simple Models

9.2.3 A Review of Ro-Vibrational Molecular Selection Rules

9.2.4 Electronic Transitions

9.2.5 Electronic Spectroscopy

9.2.6 Selection Rules, Degeneracy, and Notation

9.3 Polyatomic Molecules

9.3.1 Symmetry and Point Groups

9.3.2 Rotation of Polyatomic Molecules

9.3.3 Vibrations of Polyatomic Molecules

9.3.4 Electronic Structure

9.4 Conclusions

10 Resonance Response

10.1 Einstein Coefficients

10.1.1 Franck-Condon and HSnl-London factors

10.2 Oscillator Strengths

10.3 Absorption Cross-sections

10.4 Band Oscillator Strengths

10.5 Conclusions

11 Line Broadening

11.1 Introduction

11.2 A Spectral Formalism

11.3 General Description of Optical Spectra

11.4 Homogeneous Broadening

11.5 Inhomogeneous Broadening

11.6 Combined Mechanisms: The Voigt Profile

11.7 Conclusions

12 Polarization

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Polarization of the Resonance Response

12.3 Absorption and Polarization

12.4 Polarized Radiant Emission

12.5 Photons and Polarization

12.6 Conclusions

13 Rayleigh and Raman Scattering

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Polarizability

13.3 Classical Molecular Scattering

13.4 Rayleigh Scattering

13.5 Raman Scattering

13.5.1 Raman Flowfield Measurements

13.6 Conclusions

14 The Density Matrix Equations

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Development of the DME

14.3 Interaction with an Electromagnetic Field

14.4 Multiple Levels and Polarization in the DME

14.5 Two-level DME in the Steady-state Limit

14.6 Conclusions

A Units

B Constants