Sound and Structural Vibration

Radiation, Transmission and Response


  • Frank Fahy, Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, UK
  • Paolo Gardonio, Institute of Sound and Vibrational Research, University of Southampton, UK

The first edition of Sound and Structural Vibration was written in the early 1980s. Since then, two major developments have taken place in the field of vibroacoustics. Powerful computational methods and procedures for the numerical analysis of structural vibration, acoustical fields and acoustical interactions between fluids and structures have been developed and these are now universally employed by researchers, consultants and industrial organisations. Advances in signal processing systems and algorithms, in transducers, and in structural materials and forms of construction, have facilitated the development of practical means of applying active and adaptive control systems to structures for the purposes of reducing or modifying structural vibration and the associated sound radiation and transmission. In this greatly expanded and extensively revised edition, the authors have retained most of the analytically based material that forms the pedagogical content of the first edition, and have expanded it to present the theoretical foundations of modern numerical analysis. Application of the latter is illustrated by examples that have been chosen to complement the analytical approaches to solving fairly simple problems of sound radiation, transmission and fluid-structural coupling that are presented in the first edition. The number of examples of experimental data that relate to the theoretical content, and illustrate important features of vibroacoustic interaction, has been augmented by the inclusion of a selection from the vast amount of material published during the past twenty five years. The final chapter on the active control of sound and vibration has no precursor in the first edition.
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For undergraduates, postgraduates and those working in sound and vibration studies


Book information

  • Published: December 2006
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-373633-8


"This book is an outstanding contribution to the acoustics and vibration literature. Although it is written at an advanced level, almost anyone undertaking serious work in acoustics or vibration is sure to learn something of value by reading it. However, for researchers and PhD students working in acoustics and vibration, it is an essential reference and well worth the cost." -Colin H. Hansen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide

Table of Contents

List of ContentsPreface to First EditionPreface to Second EditionAcknowledgementsIntroductionChapter One1. Wave in Fluids and Structures1.1 Frequency and Wavenumber1.2 Sound Waves in Fluids1.3 Longitudinal Waves in Solids1.4 Quasi-longitudinal Waves in Solids1.5 Transverse (Shear) Waves in Solids1.6 Bending Waves in Bars1.7 Bending Waves in Thin Plates1.8 Dispersion Curves1.9 Flexural Waves in Thin-walled Circular Cylindrical Shells1.10 Natural frequencies and Modes of Vibration1.11 Forced Vibration Resonance1.12 Modal density and Modal Overlap1.13 The Role of Modal Density in VibroacousticsQuestionsChapter Two2. Structural Mobility, Impedance, Vibrational Energy and Power2.1 Mobility and Impedance Representations2.2 Concepts and General Forms of Mobility and Impedance of Lumped Mechanical Elements2.3 Mobility Functions of Uniform Beams in Bending2.3.1 Infinite beam2.3.2 Finite beam (closed form)2.3.3 Finite beam (modal summation)2.4 Mobility and Impedance Functions of Thin Uniform Flat Plates2.4.1 Infinite plate2.4.2 Finite plate2.5 Radial Driving-point Mobility of Thin-walled Circular Cylindrical Shells2.6 Mobility and Impedance Matrix Models2.7 Structural Power2.8 Energy Density and Energy Flux of Vibrational WavesQuestionsChapter Three3. Sound Radiation by Vibrating Structures3.1 The Importance and Mechanism of Sound Radiation by Vibrating Structures3.2 The Simple Volume Source3.3 Sound Radiation by a Pair of Elementary Surface Sources3.4 The Baffled Piston3.5 Sound Radiation by Flexural Modes of Plates3.6 Sound Radiation by Plates in Multi-mode Flexural Vibration3.6.1 Formulation in terms of structural modes3.6.2 Formulation in terms of elementary radiators3.7 Independent Radiation Modes3.7.1 Formulation in terms of structural modes3.7.2 Formulation in terms of elementary radiators3.7.3 Radiation modes and efficiencies3.7.4 A comparison of self- and mutual radiation by plate modes3.8 Sound Radiation by Flexural Waves in Plates3.9 The Frequency-average Radiation Efficiency of Plates3.10 Sound Radiation Due to Concentrated Forces and Displacements3.11 Sound Radiation by Non-uniform plate structures3.11.1 Beam-stiffened plates3.11.2 Corrugated plates3.11.3 Sandwich plates3.11.4 Composite sound insulation panels3.12 Sound Radiation by Curved Shells3.13 Sound Radiation by Irregularly Shaped Vibrating BodiesQuestionsChapter Four4. Fluid Loading of Vibrating Structures4.1 Practical Aspects of Fluid Loading4.2 Pressure Fields on Vibrating Surfaces4.3 Wave Impedances of Structures and Fluids4.4 Fluid Loading of Vibrating Plates4.5 Natural Frequencies of Fluid-loaded Plates4.6 Effects of Fluid loading on Sound Radiation from Point-excited Plates4.7 Natural Frequencies of Fluid-loaded, Thin-walled, Circular Cylindrical Shells4.8 Effects of Fluid Loading on Sound radiation by Thin-walled, Circular Cylindrical Shells4.9 Damping of Thin Plates by Porous SheetsQuestionsChapter Five5. Transmission of Sound Through Partitions5.1 Practical Aspects of Sound Transmission through Partitions5.2 Transmission of Normally Incident Plane Waves through an Unbounded Partition5.3 Transmission of Obliquely Incident Plane Waves through an Unbounded Flexible Partition5.4 Transmission of Diffuse Sound through a Bounded Partition in a Baffle5.5 Transmission of Sound through a Partition between Two Rooms5.6 Double-leaf Partitions5.7 Transmission of Normally Incident Plane Waves through an Unbounded Double-leaf partition5.8 The Theoretical Effect of Cavity Sound Absorption on Normal Incidence Transmission Loss5.9 Transmission of Obliquely Incident Plane Waves through an Unbounded Double-leaf Partition5.10 Mechanical Stiffening and Coupling of Double Partition Leaves5.11 Close-fitting Enclosures5.12 Transmission of Sound through Stiffened, Composite, Multi-layer and Non-uniform Panels5.13 Transmission of Sound through Circular Cylindrical Shells5.14 Coupling between Shell Modes and Acoustic Modes of a Contained Fluid5.15 Vibrational Response of Pipes to Internal Acoustic Excitation5.16 Transmission of Internally Generated Sound through Pipe Walls5.17 Transmission of Externally Incident Sound through Large-diameter, Thin-walled CylindersQuestionsChapter Six6. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures6.1 Practical Aspects of Acoustically Induced Vibration6.2 Decomposition of a Sound Field6.3 Response of a Baffled Plate to Plane Sound Waves6.4 The Principle of Vibroacoustic Reciprocity6.5 Modal Reciprocity: Radiation and Response6.6 Radiation Due to Point Forces and Response to Point Sources6.7 An Application of Response Theory to Building AcousticsQuestionsChapter Seven7. Acoustic Coupling between Structures and Enclosed Volumes of Fluid7.1 Practical Importance of the Problem7.2 A Simple Case of Fluid-Structure Interaction7.3 Harmonic Sound Fields in an Enclosed Volume of Fluid7.4 Sound Field in a Closed Space with Rigid Surfaces7.5 Interaction by Green's Function7.6 Modal-interaction model7.7 Solutions of the Modal-interaction Model7.8 Power Flow and Statistical Energy Analysis7.9 Wave Propagation in Plates Loaded by Confined Fluid Layers7.10 Wave Propagation in Fluid-filled Tubes of Circular Cross SectionQuestionsChapter Eight8. Introduction to Numerically Based Analyses of Fluid-Structure Interaction8.1 The Role of Numerical Analysis8.2 Numerical Analysis of Vibration in Solids and Fluids8.3 Finite Element Analysis8.4 Finite Element Analysis of Vibrations in Solid Structures8.4.1 Flexural vibration of slender beams: Rayleigh-Ritz method8.4.2 Flexural vibration of slender beams: Finite Element Analysis8.4.3 Flexural vibration of thin plates :Finite Element Analysis8.4.4 Finite element models for other types of structure8.5 Finite Element Analysis of Acoustic Vibration of Fluids in Cavities8.5.1 One-dimensional acoustic vibration of a fluid in a uniform straight pipe:Rayleigh-Ritz method8.5.2 One-dimensional acoustic vibration of a fluid in a uniform straight pipe: Finite Element Analysis8.5.3 Acoustic vibration of a fluid in a three-dimensional cavity: Finite Element Analysis8.6 Coupled Fluid-Structure Analysis8.7 Boundary Element Analysis for Vibroacoustic Problems8.7.1 Direct Boundary Element Method8.8 Coupled Structure-Fluid Analysis QuestionsChapter Nine9. Introduction to Active Control of Sound Radiation and Transmission9.1 Introduction to Active Control9.2 Fundamentals of Active Control Theory9.2.1 Feed-forward control9.2.2 Feedback control9.3 Sensor-Actuator Transducers9.3.1 Strain actuators9.3.2 Inertial electro-dynamic actuators9.3.3 Strain sensors9.3.4 Inertial sensors (accelerometers)9.4 From Active Noise Control to Active Structural Acoustic Control and Active Vibration Control9.4.1 Feed-forward Active Noise Control (ANC) and Active Noise-Vibration Control (ANVC)9.4.2 Feed-forward Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC)9.4.3 Feedback Active Structural Acoustics Control (ASAC)9.4.4 Decentralised Feedback Active Vibration Control (AVC)9.5 Smart Panels for ASAC and AVC Systems9.5.1 Models of smart panels9.5.2 Smart panels with feed-forward MIMO and SISO control system9.5.3 Smart panel ` with feed-forward SISO control systems using a volume velocity sensor and uniform force actuator9.5.4 Smart panels with feedback MIMO and SISO control systems9.5.5 Smart panel with feedback SISO control system using a volume velocity sensor and uniform force actuator QuestionsAnswers to QuestionsIndex