Solid State Physics book cover

Solid State Physics

Although there are many books published in solid state physics, there is a wide gap between the active field of research and the conceptstraditionally taught in solid state courses. This book fills that gap. The style is tutorial, simple, and completely self-contained. Solid State Physicsexplains to readers the newest advances in the area of condensed matter physics with rigorous, but lucid mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, and they are carefully designed to apply the fundamental principles illustrated in the text to currently active topics of research.

Graduate students, advanced graduates, and researchers in the fields of theoretical and experimental activity in condensed matter theory and solid state physics.

Hardbound, 714 Pages

Published: February 2000

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-304460-0


  • "... A very nice book ... I would personally buy it" - Professor Henry Ehrenreich, Harvard University


  • PrefaceChapter I Electrons in One-Dimensional Periodic Potentials 1 The Bloch Theorem for One-Dimensional Periodicity 2 Energy Levels in a Periodic Array of Quantum Wells 3 Electron Tunneling and Energy Bands 3.1 Transmission and Reflection of Electrons through an Arbitrary Potential 3.2 Electron Tunneling through a Periodic Potential 4 The Tight-Binding Approximation 4.1 Expansion in Localized Orbitals 4.2 Tridiagonal Matrices and Continued Fractions 5 Plane Waves and Nearly Free-Electron Approximation 5.1 Expansion in Plane Waves 5.2 The Mathieu Potential and the Continued Fraction Solution 6 Some Dynamical Aspects of Electrons in Band Theory Further ReadingChapter II Geometrical Description of Crystals: Direct and Reciprocal Lattices 1 Simple Lattices and Composite Lattices 1.1 Periodicity and Bravais Lattices 1.2 Simple and Composite Crystal Structures 2 Geometrical Description of Some Crystal Structures 3 Wigner-Seitz Primitive Cells 4 Reciprocal Lattices 4.1 Definitions and Basic Properties 4.2 Planes and Directions in Bravais Lattices 5 Brillouin Zones 6 Translational Symmetry and Quantum Mechanical Aspects 6.1 Translational Symmetry and Bloch Wavefunctions 6.2 the Parametric K•P Hamiltonian 6.3 Cyclic Boundary Conditions 6.4 Special K Points for Averaging over the Brillouin Zone 7 Density-of-States and Critical Points Further ReadingChapter III the Sommerfeld Free-Electron Theory of Metals 1 Quantum Theory of the Free-Electron Gas 2 Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function and Chemical Potential 3 Electronic Specific Heat in Metals and Thermodynamic Functions 4 Thermionic Emission from Metals Appendix A. Outline of Statistical Physics and Thermodynamic Relations Al. Microcanonical Ensemble and Thermodynamic Quantities A2. Canonical Ensemble and Thermodynamic Quantities A3. Grand Canonical Ensemble and Thermodynamic Quantities Appendix B. Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein Statistics for Independent Particles Appendix C. Modified Fermi-Dirac Statistics in a Model of Correlation Effects Further ReadingChapter IV The One-Electron Approximation and Beyond 1 Introductory Remarks on the Many-Electron Problem 2 The Hartree Equations 3 Identical Particles and Determinantal Wavefunctions 4 Matrix Elements Between Determinantal States 5 the Hartree-Fock Equations 5.1 Variational Approach and Hartree-Fock Equations 5.2 Ground-State Energy, Ionization Energies and Transition Energies 5.3 Hartree-Fock Equations and Transition Energies in Closed-Shell Systems 5.4 Hartree-Fock-Slater and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan Approximations 6 Overview of Approaches Beyond the One-Electron Approximation 7 Electronic Properties and Phase Diagram of the Homogeneous Electron Gas 8 The Density Functional Theory and the Kohn-Sham Equations Appendix A. Bielectronic Integrals among Spin-Orbitals Appendix B. Outline of Second Quantization Formalism for Identical Fermions Appendix C. An Integral on the Fermi Sphere Further ReadingChapter V Band Theory of Crystals 1 Basic Assumptions of the Band Theory 2 The Tight-Binding Method (LCAO Method) 2.1 Description of the Method for Simple Lattices 2.2 Description of the Tight-Binding Method for Composite Lattices 2.3 Illustrative Appucations of the Tight-Binding Scheme 3 The Orthogonalized Plane Wave (OPW) Method 4 the Pseudopotential Method 5 The Cellular Method 6 The Augmented Plane Wave (APW) Method 6.1 Description of the Method 6.2 Expression and Evaluation of the Matrix Elements of the APW Method 7 the Green'S Function Method (KKR Method) 7.1 Scattering Integral Equation for a Generic Potential 7.2 Scattering Integral Equation for a Periodic Muffin-Tin Potential 7.3 Expression and Evaluation of the Structure Coefficients 8 Other Methods and Developments in Electronic Structure Calculations 8.1 The Linearized Cellular Methods 8.2 The Lanczos Or Recursion Method 8.3 Modified Lanczos Method for Excited States 8.4 Renormalization Method for Electronic Systems Further Reading Chapter VI Electronic Properties of Selected Crystals 1 Band Structure and Cohesive Energy of Rare-Gas Solids 1.1 General Features of Band Structure of Rare-Gas Solids 1.2 Cohesive Energy of Rare-Gas Solids 2 Electronic Properties of Ionic Crystals 2.1 Introductory Remarks and Madelung Constant 2.2 Considerations on Bands and Bonds in Ionic Crystals 3 Covalent Crystals with Diamond Structure 4 Band Structures and Fermi Surfaces of Some Metals Further ReadingChapter VII Excitons, Plasmons and Dielectric Screening in Crystals 1 Exciton States in Crystals 2 Plasmon Excitations in Crystals 3 General Considerations on the Longitudinal Dielectric Function 4 Static Dielectric Screening in Metals with the Thomas-Fermi Model 5 Static Dielectric Screening in Metals with the Lindhard Model 6 Dynamic Dielectric Screening in Metals and Plasmon Modes 7 Quantum Expression of the Longitudinal Dielectric Function in Materials 8 Quantum Expression of the Longitudinal Dielectric Function in Crystals 9 Longitudinal Dielectric Function and Energy-Loss of a Fast Charged Particle Appendix A. Lindhard Dielectric Function for the Free-Electron Gas Further ReadingChapter VIII Interacting Electronic-Nuclear Systems and the Adiabatic Principle 1 Electronic-Nuclear Systems and Adiabatic Potential-Energy Surfaces 2 Non-Degenerate Adiabatic Surface and Nuclear Dynamics 2.1 Non-Degenerate Adiabatic Surface and Classical Nuclear Dynamics 2.2 Non-Degenerate Adiabatic Surface and Quantum Nuclear Dynamics 3 Degenerate Adiabatic Surfaces and Jahn-Teller Systems 3.1 Degenerate Adiabatic Surfaces and Nuclear Dynamics 3.2 the Jahn-Teller Effect for Doubly Degenerate Electronic States 3.3 the Jahn-Teller Effect for Triply Degenerate Electronic States 4 the Hellmann-Feynman Theorem and Electronic-Nuclear Systems 4.1 General Considerations on the Hellmann-Feynman Theorem 4.2 Charge Density and Atomic Forces 5 Parametric Hamiltonians and Berry Phase 6 Macroscopic Electric Polarization in Crystals and Berry Phase Further ReadingChapter IX Lattice Dynamics of Crystals 1 Dynamics of Monatomic One-Dimensional Lattices 2 Dynamics of Diatomic One-Dimensional Lattices 3 Dynamics of General Three-Dimensional Crystals 4 Quantum Theory of the Harmonic Crystal 5 Lattice Heat Capacity. Einstein and Debye Models 6 Considerations on Anharmonic Effects and Melting of Solids 7 Optical Phonons and Polaritons in Polar Crystals 7.1 General Considerations 7.2 Lattice Vibrations in Polar Crystals and Polaritons 7.3 Local Field Effects on Polaritons Appendix A. Quantum Theory of the Linear Harmonic Oscillator Further ReadingChapter X Scattering of Particles by Crystals 1 General Considerations 2 Elastic Scattering of X-Rays from Crystals 2.1 Elastic Scattering of X-Rays and Bragg Diffraction Condition 2.2 Elastic Scattering of X-Rays and Intensity of Diffiracted Beams 3 Inelastic Scattering of Particles and Phonon Spectra of Crystals 4 Compton Scattering and Electron Momentum Density 5 Diffusion of Particles by a Single Elastically-Bound Scatterer 5.1 Dynamical Structure Factor of a Single Scattering Center 5.2 Dynamical Structure Factor of a Three-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator 6 Diffusion of Particles by a Crystal and Effects of Lattice Vibrations 7 Mossbauer Effect Further ReadingChapter XI Optical and Transport Properties in Metals 1 Macroscopic Theory of Optical Constants in Homogeneous Materials 2 the Drude Theory of the Optical Properties of Free Carriers 3 Transport Properties and Boltzmann Equation 4 Static and Dynamic Conductivity in Metals 4.1 Static Conductivity with the Boltzmann Equation 4.2 Frequency and Wavevector Dependence of the Conductivity 4.3 Anomalous Skin Effect 5 Boltzmann Treatment and Quantum Treatment of Intraband Transitions 6 The Boltzmann Equation in Electric Fields and Temperature Gradients 6.1 The Transport Equations in General Form 6.2 Thermoelectric Phenomena Further ReadingChapter XII Optical Properties of Semiconductors and Insulators 1 Quantum Expression of the Transverse Dielectric Function in Materials 1.1 Optical Constants of Homogeneous Media in the Linear Response Theory 1.2 Optical Constants and Green's Function of the Electronic System 2 Quantum Theory of Band-to-Band Optical Transitions and Critical Points 3 Indirect Phonon-Assisted Transitions 4 Two-Photon Absorption 5 Exciton Effects on the Optical Properties 6 Fano Resonances and Absorption Lineshapes 7 Optical Properties of Vibronic Systems 7.1 Optical Properties of the Pranck-Condon Vibronic Model 7.2 Optical Properties of Typical Jahn-Teller Systems Appendix A. Transitions Rates at First and Higher Orders of Perturbation Theory Further ReadingChapter XIII Transport in Intrinsic and Homogeneously Doped Semiconductors 1 Fermi Level and Carrier Density in Intrinsic Semiconductors 2 Impurity Levels in Semiconductors 3 Fermi Level and Carrier Density in Doped Semiconductors 4 Thermionic Emission in Semiconductors 5 Non-Equilibrium Carrier Distributions 5.1 Drift and Diffusion Currents 5.2 Generation and Recombination of Electron-Hole Pairs in Semiconductors 6 Solutions of Typical Transport Equations in Uniformly Doped Semiconductors Further ReadingChapter XIV Transport in Inhomogeneous Semiconductors 1 Properties of The PN Junction at Equilibrium 2 Current-Voltage Characteristics of the PN Junction 3 The Bipolar Junction Transistor 4 The Junction Field-Effect Transistor (JFET) 5 Semiconductor Heterojunctions 6 Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Mesfet Transistor 7 The Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structure and Mosfet Transistor Further ReadingChapter XV Electron Gas in Magnetic Fields 1 Magnetization and Magnetic Susceptibility 2 Energy Levels and Density-of-States of a Free-Electron Gas in Magnetic Fields 2.1 Energy Levels of the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Magnetic Fields 2.2 Energy Levels of the Three-Dimensional Electron Gas in Magnetic Fields 3 Orbital Magnetic Susceptibility and De Haas-Van Alphen Effect 3.1 Orbital Magnetic Susceptibiuty of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas 3.2 Orbital Magnetic Susceptibiuty of a Three-Dimensional Electron Gas 4 Spin Paramagnetism of a Firee-Electron Gas 5 Magnetoresistivity and Classical Hall Effect 6 the Quantum Hall Effect Appendix A. Free Energy of an Electron Gas in a Uniform Magnetic Field Appendix B. Generalized Orbital Magnetic Susceptibiuty of the Free-Electron Gas Further ReadingChapter XVI Magnetic Properties of Localized Systems and Kondo Impurities 1 Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Magnetic Susceptibility 2 Magnetic Susceptibility of Closed-Shell Systems 3 Permanent Magnetic Dipoles in Atoms or Ions with Partially Filled Shells 4 Paramagnetism of Localized Magnetic Moments 5 Localized Magnetic States in Normal Metals 6 Dilute Magnetic Alloys and the Resistance Minimum Phenomenon 6.1 Some Phenomenological Aspects 6.2 The Resistance Minimum Phenomenon 6.3 Microscopic Origin of the Kondo Interaction: A Molecular Model 7 Magnetic Impurity in Normal Metals at Very Low Temperatures Further ReadingChapter XVII Magnetic Ordering in Crystals 1 Ferromagnetism and the Weiss Molecular Field 2 Microscopic Origin of the Coupling between Localized Magnetic Moments 3 Antiferromagnetism in the Mean Field Approximation 4 Spin Waves and Magnons in Ferromagnetic Crystals 5 The Ising Model with the Transfer Matrix Method 6 The Ising Model with the Renormalization Group Theory 7 the Stoner-Hubbard Itinerant Electron Model for Magnetism Further ReadingChapter XVIII Superconductivity 1 Some Phenomenolgical Aspects of Superconductors 2 The Cooper Pair Idea 3 Ground State for a Superconductor in the BCS Theory at Zero Temperature 3.1 Variational Determination of the Ground-State Wavefunction 3.2 Ground-State Energy and Isotopic Effect 3.3 Momentum Distribution and Coherence Length 4 Excited States of Superconductors at Zero Temperature 4.1 The Bogoliubov Canonical Transformation 4.2 Persistent Currents in Superconductors 4.3 Electron Tunneling into Superconductors 5 Treatment of Superconductors at Finite Temperature and Heat Capacity 6 Diamagnetism of Superconductors and Meissner Effect 6.1 the Phenomenological London Model 6.2 Pippard Electrodynamics and Effective Magnetic Penetration Depth 7 Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena 7.1 Order Parameter in Superconductors and Ginzburg-Landau Theory 7.2 Magnetic Flux Quantization 7.3 Type-I and Type-II Superconductors 8 Cooper Pair Tunneling between Superconductors and Josephson Effects Appendix A. the Phonon-Induced Electron-Electron Interaction Further ReadingSubject IndexContents SynopsisI, II, III Introductory Information and Propedeutic SubjectsIV, V, VI, VII Electronic Structure of CrystalsVIII, IX Adiabatic Principle and Lattice VibrationsX, XI, XII, XIII, XIV Scattering; Optical and transport propertiesXV, XVI XVII Magnetic Field Effects and MagnetismXVIII Superconductivity


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