Semiconductor Safety Handbook
Safety and Health in the Semiconductor IndustryBy
- Richard A. Bolmen, Aon Risk Services, USA
Interwoven within our semiconductor technology development had been the development of technologies aimed at identifying, evaluating and mitigating the environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risks and exposures associated with the manufacturing and packaging of integrated circuits. Driving and advancing these technologies have been international efforts by SEMI's Safety Division, the Semiconductor Safety Association (SSA), and the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA). The purpose of the Semiconductor Safety Handbook is to provide a current, single source reference for many of the primary semiconductor EH&S technologies and disciplines. To this end, the contributors have assembled a comprehensive text written by some of the leading experts in EH&S in the semiconductor industry. This text had taken three years to complete and has involved tremendous effort and commitment by the authors.They have attempted to construct a reference manual that is comprehensive in its coverage of the technical aspects of each individual subject, while at the same time addressing practical applications of each topic. The scope of this text, from its inception, was intended to address significantly more than what would typically be classified under the definition of ""safety."" However, all of the chapters have a direct application to the protection and preservation of semiconductor employees, the surrounding communities and the environment.This book is a hands-on reference to environmental, health and safety issues critical to the semiconductor industry. It was also the author's intent to produce a text that provides a practical user's guide for semiconductor environmental, health and safety practitioners as well as those individuals responsible for operation, maintenance and production in wafer fabrication facilities.
Semiconductor environmental, health and safety practitioners as well as those individuals responsible for operation, maintenance and production in wafer fabrication facilities.
Hardbound, 634 Pages
Published: December 1998
Imprint: William Andrew
- 1. Injury and Illness of Semiconductor Workers: Experience and Epidemiologic Studies 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Review and Discussion of Semiconductor Industry Work Injuries and Illnesses 3.0 Review and Discussion of Epidemiologic Investigations 4.0 Conclusion References2. Environmental Compliance in the Semiconductor Industry: Detection, Correction and Prevention 1.0 Introduction 2.0 External and Internal Sources Affecting Compliance 3.0 Detection of Environmental Compliance and Management Issues 4.0 Corrective Action for Environmental Compliance and Management Issues 5.0 Mitigation and Prevention of Environmental Compliance and Management Issues 6.0 Adopting Proactive Environmental Strategies 7.0 Going Beyond ComplianceùHolistic Considerations References and Source Materials Appendix A: Epa Policy on Environmental Auditing Appendix B: Environmental Compliance Audit Checklist3. Chemical Hazards in Semiconductor Operations Overview 1.0 Photolithography 2.0 Wet Etch 3.0 Dry Etch 4.0 Implant/Diffusion 5.0 Cleaning 6.0 Metallization 7.0 Maintenance Issues 8.0 Use of Gases4. Industrial Hygiene 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Industrial Hygiene Monitoring 3.0 Personal Protective Equipment 4.0 Odor Identification 5.0 Recordkeeping Acknowledgments References5. Electrical Hazards 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Where Do We Start? 3.0 Terminology 4.0 Human Effects 5.0 Scenario of an Electrical Shock 6.0 What Really Happens? 7.0 Reporting 8.0 Common Elements of Electrical Accidents/Accident Investigation 9.0 Electrical Hazard Management 10.0 Typical Electrical Hazards 11.0 Hazard-Based, Safety Planning 12.0 Lockout/Tagout 13.0 Electrical Safety Cookbook-What Can Be Done? What Can I Do? References6. Radiation Safety 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (Elf/Emf) 3.0 Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation 4.0 Lasers 5.0 Ultraviolet Radiation 6.0 Ionizing Radiation Acknowledgments References7. Recognition, Evaluation and Control of Some Plasma Processing Hazards Chemical Safety Management In A Nutshell 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Hazard Evaluation 3.0 Process Hazard Review 4.0 Other Mechanisms to Address Equipment Safety Concerns 5.0 Gas Chemical Safety 6.0 Toxicology 7.0 Sources Of Information References Additional References8. Fire Protection Technology for Semiconductor Operations 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Site Selection 3.0 Construction 4.0 Air Handling Systems 5.0 Sprinkler Protection 6.0 Water Supplies 7.0 Supervision 8.0 Chemical Handling 9.0 Equipment 10.0 Human Engineering9. Building and Fire Codes Impacting the Semiconductor Industry 1.0 Understanding the Need for Code Compliance 2.0 Overview of Applicable Codes 3.0 Overview of Uniform Building and Fire Codes 4.0 Occupancy Classifications 5.0 Classification of Hazardous Materials 6.0 Allowable Area and Separations 7.0 Location 8.0 Exiting 9.0 Exit Corridors 10.0 Service Corridors 11.0 Hazardous Material Storage and Dispense Rooms 12.0 Mechanical Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems 13.0 Fire Suppression 14.0 Electrical Power Systems 15.0 Life Safety Alarm and Monitoring Systems 16.0 Retrofit and Renovation of Hazardous Facilities to Comply With ""H"" Codes 17.0 Prioritizing Code Compliance Issues 18.0 Phasing of Project Construction10. Gases and Gas Equipment 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Gas Distribution Systems in Plant Piping 3.0 Gas CylindersùSafe Use and Handling 4.0 General Gas Handling Equipment 5.0 Cylinder Gas Delivery Systems 6.0 Gas Candidates Bibliography11. Toxic Gas Monitoring 1.0 Requirement for Continuous Toxic Gas Monitoring 2.0 Purpose of a Toxic Gas Monitoring System 3.0 Functional Model of a Toxic Gas Monitoring System 4.0 Selection of a Toxic Gas Monitoring System 5.0 Future Trends References Index