Satellite and Terrestrial Radio Positioning Techniques

A signal processing perspective

Edited by

  • Davide Dardari, Faculy of Engineering, University of Bologna, Italy
  • Marco Luise, University of Pisa, Italy
  • Emanuela Falletti, Istituto Superiore Mario Boella (ISMB), Torino, Italy

* The first book to combine satellite and terrestrial positioning techniques - vital for the understanding and development of new technologies

* Written and edited by leading experts in the field, with contributors belonging to the European Commission's FP7 Network of Excellence NEWCOM++ Applications to a wide range of fields, including sensor networks, emergency services, military use, location-based billing, location-based advertising, intelligent transportation, and leisure

Location-aware personal devices and location-based services have become ever more prominent in the past few years, thanks to the significant advances in position location technology. Sensor networks, geographic information, emergency services, location management, location-based billing, location-based advertising, intelligent transportation, and leisure applications are just some of the potential applications that can be enabled by these techniques.

Increasingly, satellite and terrestrial positioning techniques are being combined for maximum performance; to produce the next wave of location-based devices and services, engineers need to combine both components. This book is the first to present a holistic view, covering all aspects of positioning: both terrestrial and satellite, both theory and practice, both performance bounds and signal processing techniques. It will provide a valuable resource for product developers and R&D engineers, allowing them to improve existing location techniques and develop future approaches for new systems.

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Audience

Developers of products and technologies related to wireless/satellite positioning; research and development departments of manufacturing companies in the field (electronics, telecom, automotive, aerospace/defense); post-grad students in telecommunications, electronics, signal processing, geomatics, aerospace and electronic systems.

 

Book information

  • Published: October 2011
  • Imprint: ACADEMIC PRESS
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-382084-6

Reviews

"It is difficult to point to another part of the high-tech industry that is so dynamic and growing as fast as the navigation sector." – Chris Jones, Canalys VP and principal analyst.




Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Introduction

1.1 The General Issue of Wireless Position Location

1.1.1 Context and Applications

1.1.2 Classification of Wireless Positioning Systems

1.1.3 Performance Metrics

1.2 Positioning and Navigation Systems

1.2.1 Satellite-Based Systems

1.2.2 Augmentation Systems and Assisted GNSS
1.2.3 Terrestrial Network-Based Systems

1.3 Application of Signal Processing Techniques to Positioning and Navigation

Problems

1.3.1 Parametric Statistical Techniques

1.3.2 Nonparametric Statistical Techniques

1.3.3 Nongeometric Techniques

1.3.4 Advanced Signal Processing Tools

CHAPTER 2 Satellite-Based Navigation Systems

2.1 Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs)

2.1.1 Global Positioning System (GPS)

2.1.2 Galileo

2.1.3 GLONASS

2.1.4 Compass/BeiDou and Regional GNSSs

2.2 GNSS Receivers

2.2.1 Overall Architecture

2.2.2 Signal Acquisition

2.2.3 Signal Tracking

2.2.4 Navigation Processing

2.2.5 Pseudorange Error Sources 2.3 Augmentation Systems and Assisted GNSS

2.3.1 Differential GPS

2.3.2 Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems

2.3.3 Pseudolites for GNSS

2.3.4 Network RTK

2.3.5 Assisted GNSS
CHAPTER 3 Terrestrial Network-Based Positioning and Navigation

3.1 Fundamentals on Positioning and Navigation Techniques in Terrestrial

Networks

3.1.1 Position-Related Signal Parameter Estimation

3.1.2 Position Estimation Techniques
3.1.3 Error Sources in Localization

3.2 Positioning in Cellular Networks

3.2.1 Positioning and Navigation Approaches

3.3 Positioning in Wireless LANs

3.3.1 Architecture of a WLAN 3.3.2 IEEE 802.11a/b/g Standards

3.3.3 Positioning and Navigation Approaches

3.4 Positioning in Wireless Sensor Networks

3.4.1 Physical Layers for WSNs

3.4.2 Position-Related Signal Parameters Using UWB

3.4.3 Positioning Approaches for WSNs

CHAPTER 4 Fundamental Limits in the Accuracy of Wireless Positioning

4.1 Accuracy Bounds in Parameter Estimation and Positioning

4.1.1 Fundamental Limits in TOA Ranging with UWB Signals

4.2 Variations on the Cram´er-Rao Bounds

4.2.1 Cram´er-Rao Bounds on TOA Estimation in the UWB Multipath Channel

4.2.2 CRBs for UWB Multipath Channel Estimation: Impact of the

Overlapping Pulses

4.3 Variations on the Ziv-Zakai Bound

4.3.1 Signal and Channel Models for UWB Scenarios

4.3.2 Derivation of the Ziv-Zakai Lower Bound

4.3.3 Numerical Results in the Presence of Multipath

4.4 Innovative Positioning Algorithms and the Relevant Bounds

4.4.1 Theoretical Bounds for Direct Position Estimation in GNSS

4.4.2 Theoretical Performance Limits in Cooperative Localization

4.4.3 Bounds for TOA Estimation in the Presence of Interference

CHAPTER 5 Innovative Signal Processing Techniques for Wireless Positioning

5.1 Advanced UWB Positioning Techniques

5.1.1 TOA Estimators Operating in the Frequency Domain

5.1.2 Joint Range and Direction of Arrival Estimation

5.1.3 TOA Estimation in the Presence of Interference

5.1.4 Robust Approaches for TOA Estimation in NLOS Conditions

5.2 MIMO Positioning Systems

5.2.1 CRB for the Joint Estimation of TOA and AOA in MIMO Systems

5.2.2 A Practical Range Estimator for SIMO Systems

5.3 Advanced Geometric Localization Approaches

5.3.1 Bounded-Error Distributed Estimation

5.3.2 Projections onto Convex Sets (POCS) Algorithms

5.4 Cooperative Positioning 5.4.1 Introduction to Cooperative Localization

5.4.2 Cooperative LS

5.4.3 Cooperative POCS

5.4.4 Positioning Using Active and Passive Anchors

5.4.5 Distributed Positioning Based on Belief Propagation

5.5 Cognitive Positioning for Cognitive Radio Terminals

5.5.1 Cognitive TOA Estimation

5.5.2 Filter-Bank Multicarrier Ranging Signals

5.5.3 Cognitive Bounds and Algorithms with Multicarrier Signals

CHAPTER 6 Signal Processing for Hybridization

6.1 An Introduction to Bayesian Filtering for Localization and Tracking

6.1.1 Bayesian Belief

6.1.2 Dynamic Models

6.1.3 Generic Structure of a Bayesian Filter

6.1.4 Kalman Filter and its Derivatives

6.1.5 Particle Filters

6.2 Hybrid Terrestrial Localization Based on TOA C TDOA C AOA

Measurements

6.3 Hybrid Localization Based on GNSS and Inertial Systems

6.3.1 Inertial Measurement Units and Inertial Navigation

6.3.2 Classic Integration of a GNSS Receiver with Inertial Sensors

6.3.3 Bayesian Direct Position Estimation with Inertial Information

6.4 Hybrid Localization Based on GNSS and Peer-to-Peer Terrestrial Signaling

6.4.1 Hybrid Distributed Weighted Multidimensional Scaling

CHAPTER 7 Casting Signal Processing to Real-World Data

7.1 The NEWCOMCC Bologna Test Site

7.1.1 Hardware Setup

7.1.2 Reference Scenarios

7.2 Application of Signal Processing Algorithms Experimental Data

7.2.1 Hybridization of Radio Measurements with Inertial Acceleration

Corrections

7.2.2 EKF and SIR-PF for Hybrid Terrestrial Navigation

7.2.3 Coping with NLOS Measurements: A Comparison among EKF with

Bias Tracking, Cubature PF, and Cost-Reference PF

7.2.4 Experimental Results on LOS versus NLOS Propagation Condition

Identification

7.3 Software-Defined Radio: An Enabling Technology to Develop and Test

Advanced Positioning Terminals

7.3.1 The Software-Defined Radio Concept

7.3.2 SDR Technology in Localization

References

Index

CHAPTER 1 Introduction

1.1 The General Issue of Wireless Position Location

1.1.1 Context and Applications

1.1.2 Classification of Wireless Positioning Systems

1.1.3 Performance Metrics

1.2 Positioning and Navigation Systems

1.2.1 Satellite-Based Systems

1.2.2 Augmentation Systems and Assisted GNSS
1.2.3 Terrestrial Network-Based Systems

1.3 Application of Signal Processing Techniques to Positioning and Navigation

Problems

1.3.1 Parametric Statistical Techniques

1.3.2 Nonparametric Statistical Techniques

1.3.3 Nongeometric Techniques

1.3.4 Advanced Signal Processing Tools

CHAPTER 2 Satellite-Based Navigation Systems

2.1 Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs)

2.1.1 Global Positioning System (GPS)

2.1.2 Galileo

2.1.3 GLONASS

2.1.4 Compass/BeiDou and Regional GNSSs

2.2 GNSS Receivers

2.2.1 Overall Architecture

2.2.2 Signal Acquisition

2.2.3 Signal Tracking

2.2.4 Navigation Processing

2.2.5 Pseudorange Error Sources 2.3 Augmentation Systems and Assisted GNSS

2.3.1 Differential GPS

2.3.2 Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems

2.3.3 Pseudolites for GNSS

2.3.4 Network RTK

2.3.5 Assisted GNSS
CHAPTER 3 Terrestrial Network-Based Positioning and Navigation

3.1 Fundamentals on Positioning and Navigation Techniques in Terrestrial

Networks

3.1.1 Position-Related Signal Parameter Estimation

3.1.2 Position Estimation Techniques
3.1.3 Error Sources in Localization

3.2 Positioning in Cellular Networks

3.2.1 Positioning and Navigation Approaches

3.3 Positioning in Wireless LANs

3.3.1 Architecture of a WLAN 3.3.2 IEEE 802.11a/b/g Standards

3.3.3 Positioning and Navigation Approaches

3.4 Positioning in Wireless Sensor Networks

3.4.1 Physical Layers for WSNs

3.4.2 Position-Related Signal Parameters Using UWB

3.4.3 Positioning Approaches for WSNs

CHAPTER 4 Fundamental Limits in the Accuracy of Wireless Positioning

4.1 Accuracy Bounds in Parameter Estimation and Positioning

4.1.1 Fundamental Limits in TOA Ranging with UWB Signals

4.2 Variations on the Cram´er-Rao Bounds

4.2.1 Cramér-Rao Bounds on TOA Estimation in the UWB Multipath Channel

4.2.2 CRBs for UWB Multipath Channel Estimation: Impact of the

Overlapping Pulses

4.3 Variations on the Ziv-Zakai Bound

4.3.1 Signal and Channel Models for UWB Scenarios

4.3.2 Derivation of the Ziv-Zakai Lower Bound

4.3.3 Numerical Results in the Presence of Multipath

4.4 Innovative Positioning Algorithms and the Relevant Bounds

4.4.1 Theoretical Bounds for Direct Position Estimation in GNSS

4.4.2 Theoretical Performance Limits in Cooperative Localization

4.4.3 Bounds for TOA Estimation in the Presence of Interference

CHAPTER 5 Innovative Signal Processing Techniques for Wireless Positioning

5.1 Advanced UWB Positioning Techniques

5.1.1 TOA Estimators Operating in the Frequency Domain

5.1.2 Joint Range and Direction of Arrival Estimation

5.1.3 TOA Estimation in the Presence of Interference

5.1.4 Robust Approaches for TOA Estimation in NLOS Conditions

5.2 MIMO Positioning Systems

5.2.1 CRB for the Joint Estimation of TOA and AOA in MIMO Systems

5.2.2 A Practical Range Estimator for SIMO Systems

5.3 Advanced Geometric Localization Approaches

5.3.1 Bounded-Error Distributed Estimation

5.3.2 Projections onto Convex Sets (POCS) Algorithms

5.4 Cooperative Positioning

5.4.2 Cooperative LS

5.4.3 Cooperative POCS

5.4.4 Positioning Using Active and Passive Anchors

5.4.5 Distributed Positioning Based on Belief Propagation

5.5 Cognitive Positioning for Cognitive Radio Terminals

5.5.1 Cognitive TOA Estimation

5.5.2 Filter-Bank Multicarrier Ranging Signals

5.5.3 Cognitive Bounds and Algorithms with Multicarrier Signals

CHAPTER 6 Signal Processing for Hybridization

6.1 An Introduction to Bayesian Filtering for Localization and Tracking

6.1.1 Bayesian Belief

6.1.2 Dynamic Models

6.1.3 Generic Structure of a Bayesian Filter

6.1.4 Kalman Filter and its Derivatives

6.1.5 Particle Filters

6.2 Hybrid Terrestrial Localization Based on TOA + TDOA + AOA Measurements

6.3 Hybrid Localization Based on GNSS and Inertial Systems

6.3.1 Inertial Measurement Units and Inertial Navigation

6.3.2 Classic Integration of a GNSS Receiver with Inertial Sensors

6.3.3 Bayesian Direct Position Estimation with Inertial Information

6.4 Hybrid Localization Based on GNSS and Peer-to-Peer Terrestrial Signaling

6.4.1 Hybrid Distributed Weighted Multidimensional Scaling

CHAPTER 7 Casting Signal Processing to Real-World Data

7.1 The NEWCOM++ Bologna Test Site

7.1.1 Hardware Setup

7.1.2 Reference Scenarios

7.2 Application of Signal Processing Algorithms Experimental Data

7.2.1 Hybridization of Radio Measurements with Inertial Acceleration

Corrections

7.2.2 EKF and SIR-PF for Hybrid Terrestrial Navigation

7.2.3 Coping with NLOS Measurements: A Comparison among EKF with

Bias Tracking, Cubature PF, and Cost-Reference PF

7.2.4 Experimental Results on LOS versus NLOS Propagation Condition

Identification

7.3 Software-Defined Radio: An Enabling Technology to Develop and Test

Advanced Positioning Terminals

7.3.1 The Software-Defined Radio Concept

7.3.2 SDR Technology in Localization

References

Index