Safety of Reactive Chemicals and PyrotechnicsBy
- T. Yoshida, Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan
- Y. Wada, National Institute for Resources & Environment, Ibaraki, Japan
- N. Foster, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, USA
Accidents involving reactive chemicals can often be prevented, or their effects alleviated, if those handling them have a sound knowledge both of their hazardous properties and of appropriate handling methods. This book addresses this need.
It opens with a definition of the key technical terms and evaluation methods for hazardous materials are outlined. Chapter 2 covers accidents involving self-reactive substances, accidents occurring during chemical reactions, and accidents involving hazardous products in the event of an earthquake. In the next three chapters, methods for evaluating fire and explosion hazards of reactive substances are covered. The test methods described include DSC test using a sealed cell, impact sensitivity tests, the ignitability test, burning tests, the pyrolytic severity test, and shock sensitivity tests. Recently, the Japanese Fire Services Law was amended, requiring hazardous materials to be evaluated and classified by appropriate tests. These test methods, described in chapter 4, are related to oxidising solids, combustible solids, spontaneous ignition substances, and water-reactive substances. The final chapter gives examples of the safety assessment of various pyrotechnics.
There are few books available on this subject and none so comprehensive. Each of the methods described is practical, effective and of low cost; and many of the application results are from the author's own laboratory. The book will be invaluable to those in public and industrial safety laboratories, R & D chemical laboratories, Fire Departments, explosives manufacturers, and those responsible for the transportation of hazardous materials.
Industrial Safety Series
Published: November 1995
- Preface. 1. Reactive Chemicals and the Evaluation of their Hazards. Introduction. Chemical Substances, Hazardous Materials, Reactive Chemicals and Pyrotechnics. Definition of Hazardous Materials and Their Evaluation Methods. Reactive Chemicals and the Evaluation of Their Hazards. References. 2. Accidents Involving Reactive Chemicals. Introduction. Accidents Involving Self-Reactive Substances. Accidents During Chemical Reactions. Accidents Involving Reactions with Other Substances. Accidents Involving Hazardous Goods in Earthquakes. Accidents Involving Pyrotechnics. References. 3. Experimental Evaluation of Fire and Explosion Hazards of Reactive Substances. Introduction. DSC or DTA using a Sealed Cell (A). Impact Sensitivity Tests. The Ignitability Test. Burning Test. Pyrolytic Severity Test. Shock Sensitivity Test. Detonation-Propagation Tests. References. 4. Hazardous Materials and Concrete Testing Methods Applied to Them. Oxidizing Solids. Combustible Solids. Spontaneous Ignition Substances and Water-Reactive Substances. References. 5. Safety Assessment of Pyrotechnics. Introduction. Safe Package of Sporting Paper Caps. How to Build a Safety Storage Shed for Small Amounts of Explosives. Safety Evaluation of Gas Generators for Seatbelt Tensioners. Preface. Safety Evaluation of HMX Added Composite Propellant. Preface. References. Subject Index.