Safety and Security Review for the Process Industries

Application of HAZOP, PHA, What-IF and SVA Reviews


  • Dennis P. Nolan, Loss Prevention Manager and Chief Fire Prevention Engineer, Saudi Aramco

Safety and Security Review for the Process Industries: Application of HAZOP, PHA, What-IF and SVA Reviews, Third Edition, describes the responsibilities, methods, and documentation required for the performance of qualitative hazard analysis for industrial and commercial processes, specifically Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), What-If, and Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) reviews. It is a guideline and reference book that explains how the methodology and procedures used for these reviews can be adopted and applied for Security Vulnerability Analysis (SVA) to avoid the major risks that have the potential to severely impact the industry. Organized into 13 chapters, the book relies mainly on practices commonly observed in the petroleum, chemical, and petrochemical industries. It begins with an overview of PHA, What-If, and HAZOP reviews, including their limitations and advantages. It then moves into a discussion of safety reviews that are increasingly used in the process industries: Bow-Tie Analysis (BTA), Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA), and Safety Integrity Level (SIL). The book looks at review team members, their qualifications and responsibilities, and senior management support and responsibilities for the safety and security of a facility. The reader is also introduced to review procedures and worksheets, review applications, preparation and distribution of the study report, and handling and resolution of recommendations. The book concludes by explaining the estimation of review scheduling and cost. This book will serve as a reminder to members of PHA, What-If, and HAZOP review teams about their duties and responsibilities.
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Book information

  • Published: October 2011
  • ISBN: 978-1-4377-3518-5

Table of Contents



About the Author

1. Purpose

2. Scope

3. Objective and Description of PHA, What-If, and HAZOP Reviews

    1. Definition

    2. Objectives

    3. Origins of Qualitative Safety Reviews

    4. Limitations or Disadvantages

         4.1 Limitations

         4.2 Advantages

4. Adaptation to Security Vulnerability Analysis

    1. Comparison to Process Hazard Analysis Reviews

    2. SVA Overall Procedure

    3. Major Differences between Security Vulnerability Analyses and Process Hazard Analyses

    4. Threat Analysis Necessity

5. Specialized Reviews-Bow-Tie Analysis, Layers of Protection Analysis, and Safety Integrity Levels

    1. Bow-Tie Analysis

    2. Layers of Protection Analysis

    3. SIL Analysis

6. Team Members, Qualifications, and Responsibilities

    1. Team Members

         1.1 Minimum team members

         1.2 Supplemental members

    2. Team Member Qualifications

         2.1 Team leader

         2.2 Scribe

         2.3 Project manager (project, process, manufacturing, or facility engineer)

         2.4 Operations representative

         2.5 Loss prevention or safety representative

         2.6 Security officer or representative (for SVAs)

         2.7 Supplemental team member

    3. Team Responsibilities

         3.1 Team leader

         3.2 Scribe

         3.3 Project manager (project, process, manufacturing, or facility engineer)

         3.4 Operations representative

         3.5 Loss prevention or safety representative

         3.6 Security officer or representative (for SVAs)

         3.7 Supplemental team member(s)

    4. Team Dynamics

         4.1 Leadership influences

         4.2 Lines of communication

         4.3 Efficiency factors

    5. Use of Consultants

         5.1 Qualifications

         5.2 Advantages

         5.3 Disadvantages

    6. Record of Employee Experience

7. Management Support and Responsibilities

8. Review Applications for Typical Facilities

    1. PHA Review Applications

    2. What-If Review Applications

    3. HAZOP Review Applications

    4. SVA Review Applications

    5. Application During Changes at a Facility

9. Review Procedures

    1. Review Preparation and Setup

         1.1 Location

         1.2 Administrative support

         1.3 Facility documentation

         1.4 PHA consequence and likelihood data resources

         1.5 SVA Threat Analysis data resources

         1.6 Computer hardware and software support

         1.7 Node identification

         1.8 SVA area identification

    2. Review Methodology

    3. Review Procedure

         3.1 Review steps

    4. Credible Scenarios and Causes

    5. Possible Causes

    6. Safeguards

    7. Likelihood (Probabilities)

    8. Consequences

    9. Notetaking

    10. Helpful Review Suggestions

    11. Helpful Technical Suggestions

         11.1 General

         11.2 HAZOP suggestions

         11.3 General PHA, What-If, HAZOP, and SVA review suggestions

    12. Assumptions for the Review Process

    13. Providing Recommendations

         13.1 Examples of inadequate versus adequate recommendations

         13.2 How to rank recommendations

    14. Quality Audit

10. Review Worksheets

    1. PHA Worksheet

    2. What-If Worksheet

    3. HAZOP Worksheet

    4. SVA Worksheets

    5. Worksheet Identification

11. Report Preparation and Distribution

    1. Report Stages and Purpose

    2. Report Preparation and Organization

    3. Report Distribution

         3.1 Preliminary reports

         3.2 Draft reports

         3.3 Final reports

         3.4 Addendum reports

12. Handling and Resolution of Recommendations

    1. Ranking and Classifying Recommendations

         1.1 Recommendation resolution summary

    2. Objectives of a Safe and Secure Facility Design

    3. Recommendation Action Plans

    4. Risk Assessment Studies

    5. Risk Acceptance Criteria

    6. Cost-Benefit Analysis

13. Schedule and Cost Estimates

    1. Schedule

         1.1 Formula to estimate review scheduling

         1.2 Time bar scheduling and integration with project schedule

    2. Cost Estimate

    3. Estimating Formula

         3.1 Cost of preparation

         3.2 Cost of review sessions

         3.3 Cost of report preparations and review

         3.4 Documentation costs

         3.5 Hardware, software, and incidental costs

    4. Example Calculation for Schedule and Cost

Appendix A Typical Company Policy Statement

Appendix B Quality Assurance Audit Checklist

Appendix C Probability, Severity, Risk, and Risk-Acceptance Tables

Appendix D PHA and What-If Checklist Questions

Appendix E HAZOP Parameters, Deviations, and Possible Causes

List of Acronyms