Reproductive Allocation in PlantsEdited by
- Edward Reekie, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada
- Fakhri Bazzaz, The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Much effort has been devoted to developing theories to explain the wide variation we observe in reproductive allocation among environments. Reproductive Allocation in Plants describes why plants differ in the proportion of their resources that they allocate to reproduction and looks into the various theories. This book examines the ecological and evolutionary explanations for variation in plant reproductive allocation from the perspective of the underlying physiological mechanisms controlling reproduction and growth. An international team of leading experts have prepared chapters summarizing the current state of the field and offering their views on the factors determining reproductive allocation in plants. This will be a valuable resource for senior undergraduate students, graduate students and researchers in ecology, plant ecophysiology, and population biology.
Senior level undergraduate students, graduate students and researchers interested in plant biology.
Hardbound, 264 Pages
Published: October 2005
Imprint: Academic Press
- 1. The Resource Economy of Plant ReproductionP. Staffan Karlsson and Marcos MendezI. IntroductionII. Historical PreludeIII. The Principle of AllocationIV. Reproductive EffortA. DefinitionsV. Problems in Determining Reproductive Allocation A. The Currency B. Definition of Reproductive versus Non-reproductive Plant Parts C. When Should Reproductive Allocation be Measured?VI. Dynamic Resource AllocationVII. Empirical Patterns in Reproductive Allocation A. RA and Life History B. RA in relation to Succession, Competition and Disturbance C. RA in Relation to Environmental Stress D. Genetic Variation in RA E. What Does the Evidence Say?VIII. Costs of Reproduction A. Methodological Issues B. Quantitative Links Between Reproductive Allocation and CostsIX. ConclusionsReferences2. Meristem Allocation as a Means of Assessing Reproductive AllocationKari Lehtilä and Annika Sundås LarssonI. AbstractII. IntroductionIII. Developmental and Physiological Background of Meristem AllocationIV. Meristem Structure and Generation of Plant ArchitectureV. Axillary Bud Formation and Subsequent Development of the BudVI. Genetics and Physiology of the Floral TransitionVII. Meristem TypesVIII. Meristem ModelsIX. The Assumptions of the ModelsX. The Impact of Meristem Allocation on Reproductive AllocationXI. Plasticity of Meristem AllocationXII. Major Genes of Meristem AllocationXIII. Resource Levels and Meristem LimitationXIV. The Function of Dormant BudsXV. Meristem Allocation as a Surrogate in Estimation of Resource AllocationXVI. ConclusionsReferences3. It Never Rains but then it Pours: The Diverse Effects of Water on Flower Integrity and FunctionCandace GalenI. AbstractII. IntroductionIII. The Functional Ecology of Water in the Life of a Flower A. Water Use by Flowers B. The Water Cost of Flowers C. Water as a regulator of Flower Microclimate D. Water as a conduit for Environmental Sources of Flower DamageIV. Water Relations and the Evolution of Floral Traits A. Floral Traits as Resource Sinks: The Resource Cost Hypothesis B. Floral Traits and Water in the Microclimate: Parental Environmental EffectsC. Plastic Responses of Floral Traits to Water Availability: Impact on Plant/Pollinator InteractionsV. ConclusionsReferences4. The Allometry of Reproductive AllocationGregory CheplickI. IntroductionII. Definition and Analysis of RA in Relation to AllometryIII. Allometry Theory and RAIV. Relation of RA to Relative FitnessV. Allometry of ModulesVI. Allometry of RA and Plant Life HistoryVII. Determinants of AllometryVIII. ConclusionsReferences5. Sex-Specific Physiology and Its Implications for the Cost of ReproductionAndrea L. Case and Tia-Lynn AshmanI. IntroductionII. Sexual PolymorphismsIII. Costs of Reproduction A. Male Costs B. Female Costs C. Common Flower Costs D. Demographic CostsIV. Avenues for Mitigating the Cost of Reproduction A. Photosynthetic Reproductive Organs B. Increased Vegetative Photosynthesis C. Increased Resource Uptake and Water Use Effeciency D. ResorptionV. Predictions for Sex-Specific Physiology Based on Differential Reproductive Costs A. Predictions for Females and MalesB. Predictions for Hermaphrodites in Monomorphic Sexual Systems: Cosexuality. Monoecy and DiphasyC. Predictions for Hermaphrodites in Dimorphic Sexual Systems: Gynodioecy and SubdioecyVI. Potential Causes of Sex-Specific PhysiologyA. Physiological Differences Reflect Plastic Responses to Contrasting Reproductive Allocation between SexesB. Selection Modifies Physiological Traits after the Separation of the Sexes to Meet Differential Reproductive CostsC. Physiology Changes as a Correlated Response to Selection on Other Traits (e.g. via Pleiotropy or Linkage)VII. Available Data on Sex-Specific PhysiologyVIII. Recommendations for Future StudyReferences6. Time of Flowering, Costs of Reproduction and Reproductive Output in AnnualsTadaki Hirose, Toshihiko Kinugasa, and Yukinori ShitakaI. IntroductionII. Modelling of reproductive outputIII. Timing of reproductionA. Effect of nutrient availabilityB. Effect of germination datesC. Effect of change in flowering timeIV. Costs of reproductionA. Reproductive effort and the relative somatic costB. Nitrogen use efficiencyV. Reproductive nitrogenVI. ConclusionReferences7. The Shape of the Trade-off Function between Reproduction and GrowthEdward G. Reekie and German Avila-SakarI. IntroductionII. Methods of Describing the Trade-off FunctionIII. The Shape of the Trade-off Function in PlantagoIV. Impact of Reproduction on Resource UptakeV. Differences in the Resource Requirements of Vegetative versus Reproductive TissueVI. Effect of Nitrogen versus Light LimitationVII. Effect of Growth PatternVIII. ConclusionReferences8. On Size, Fecundity and Fitness in Competing PlantsLonnie W. AarssenI. IntroductionII. Defining the Components of Competitive Ability for Between-Species Plant CompetitionIII. Predicting Fecundity Under CompetitionIV. Relationships Among Plant Traits Affecting Fecundity Under Competition: Alternative Ways to Compete Intensively While Avoiding Competitive ExclusionV. Preliminary Empirical TestsVI. Predicting Winner from Rank Orders in Plant Competition: Lessons from Sports CompetitionVII. Conclusions