Reliability, Maintainability and Risk 8e

Practical Methods for Engineers including Reliability Centred Maintenance and Safety-Related Systems

By

  • David Smith, BSc, PhD, CEng, FIEE, FIQA, HonFSaRS, MIGasE., Independent Consultant, Technis, Tonbridge, U.K.

Reliability, Maintainability and Risk: Practical Methods for Engineers, Eighth Edition, discusses tools and techniques for reliable and safe engineering, and for optimizing maintenance strategies. It emphasizes the importance of using reliability techniques to identify and eliminate potential failures early in the design cycle. The focus is on techniques known as RAMS (reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety-integrity). The book is organized into five parts. Part 1 on reliability parameters and costs traces the history of reliability and safety technology and presents a cost-effective approach to quality, reliability, and safety. Part 2 deals with the interpretation of failure rates, while Part 3 focuses on the prediction of reliability and risk. Part 4 discusses design and assurance techniques; review and testing techniques; reliability growth modeling; field data collection and feedback; predicting and demonstrating repair times; quantified reliability maintenance; and systematic failures. Part 5 deals with legal, management and safety issues, such as project management, product liability, and safety legislation.
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Audience

Chemical, Process, Plant, Oil & Gas and related systems safety engineers

 

Book information

  • Published: June 2011
  • Imprint: BUTTERWORTH HEINEMANN
  • ISBN: 978-0-08-096902-2


Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgements

Part 1 Understanding Reliability Parameters and Costs

Chapter 1: The History of Reliability and Safety Technology

1.1 Failure Data

1.2 Hazardous Failures

1.3 Reliability and Risk Prediction

1.4 Achieving Reliability and Safety-Integrity

1.5 The RAMS Cycle

1.6 Contractual and Legal Pressures

Chapter 2: Understanding Terms and Jargon

2.1 Defining Failure and Failure Modes

2.2 Failure Rate and Mean Time Between Failures

2.3 Interrelationships of Terms

2.4 The Bathtub Distribution

2.5 Down Time and Repair Time

2.6 Availability, Unavailability and Probability of Failure on Demand

2.7 Hazard and Risk-Related Terms

2.8 Choosing the Appropriate Parameter

Chapter 3: A Cost-Effective Approach to Quality, Reliability and Safety

3.1 Reliability and Optimum Cost

3.2 Costs and Safety

3.3 The Cost of Quality

Part 2 Interpreting Failure Rates

Chapter 4: Realistic Failure Rates and Prediction Confidence

4.1 Data Accuracy

4.2 Sources of Data

4.3 Data Ranges

4.4 Confidence Limits of Prediction

4.5 Manufacturers’ Data

4.6 Overall Conclusions

Chapter 5: Interpreting Data and Demonstrating Reliability

5.1 The Four Cases

5.2 Inference and Confidence Levels

5.3 The Chi-Square Test

5.4 Understanding the Method in More Detail

5.5 Double-Sided Confidence Limits

5.6 Reliability Demonstration

5.7 Sequential Testing

5.8 Setting Up Demonstration Tests

Exercises

Chapter 6: Variable Failure Rates and Probability Plotting

6.1 The Weibull Distribution

6.2 Using the Weibull Method

6.3 More Complex Cases of the Weibull Distribution

6.4 Continuous Processes

Exercises

Part 3 Predicting Reliability and Risk

Chapter 7: Basic Reliability Prediction Theory

7.1 Why Predict RAMS?

7.2 Probability Theory

7.3 Reliability of Series Systems

7.4 Redundancy Rules

7.5 General Features of Redundancy

Exercises

Chapter 8: Methods of Modeling

8.1 Block Diagrams and Repairable Systems

8.2 Common Cause (Dependent) Failure

8.3 Fault Tree Analysis

8.4 Event Tree Diagrams

Chapter 9: Quantifying the Reliability Models

9.1 The Reliability Prediction Method

9.2 Allowing for Diagnostic Intervals

9.3 FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis)

9.4 Human Factors

9.5 Simulation

9.6 Comparing Predictions with Targets

Exercises

Chapter 10: Risk Assessment (QRA)

10.1 Frequency and Consequence

10.2 Perception of Risk, ALARP and Cost per Life Saved

10.3 Hazard Identification

10.4 Factors to Quantify

Part 4 Achieving Reliability and Maintainability

Chapter 11: Design and Assurance Techniques

11.1 Specifying and Allocating the Requirement

11.2 Stress Analysis

11.3 Environmental Stress Protection

11.4 Failure Mechanisms

11.5 Complexity and Parts

11.6 Burn-In and Screening

11.7 Maintenance Strategies

Chapter 12: Design Review, Test and Reliability Growth

12.1 Review Techniques

12.2 Categories of Testing

12.3 Reliability Growth Modeling

Exercises

Chapter 13: Field Data Collection and Feedback

13.1 Reasons for Data Collection

13.2 Information and Difficulties

13.3 Times to Failure

13.4 Spreadsheets and Databases

13.5 Best Practice and Recommendations

13.6 Analysis and Presentation of Results

13.7 Manufacturers’ data

13.8 Anecdotal Data

13.9 Examples of Failure Report Forms

Chapter 14: Factors Influencing Down Time

14.1 Key Design Areas

14.2 Maintenance Strategies and Handbooks

Chapter 15: Predicting and Demonstrating Repair Times

15.1 Prediction Methods

15.2 Demonstration Plans

Chapter 16: Quantified Reliability Centered Maintenance

16.1 What is QRCM?

16.2 The QRCM Decision Process

16.3 Optimum Replacement (Discard)

16.4 Optimum Spares

16.5 Optimum Proof Test

16.6 Condition Monitoring

Chapter 17: Systematic Failures, Especially Software

17.1 Programable Devices

17.2 Software-related Failures

17.3 Software Failure Modeling

17.4 Software Quality Assurance (Life Cycle Activities)

17.5 Modern/Formal Methods

17.6 Software Checklists

Part 5 Legal, Management and Safety Considerations

Chapter 18: Project Management and Competence

18.1 Setting Objectives and Making Specifications

18.2 Planning, Feasibility and Allocation

18.3 Program Activities

18.4 Responsibilities and Competence

18.5 Functional Safety Capability

18.6 Standards and Guidance Documents

Chapter 19: Contract Clauses and Their Pitfalls

19.1 Essential Areas

19.2 Other Areas

19.3 Pitfalls

19.4 Penalties

19.5 Subcontracted Reliability Assessments

Examples

Chapter 20: Product Liability and Safety Legislation

20.1 The General Situation

20.2 Strict Liability

20.3 The Consumer Protection Act 1987

20.4 Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

20.5 Insurance and Product Recall

Chapter 21: Major Incident Legislation

21.1 History of Major Incidents

21.2 Development of major incident legislation

21.3 CIMAH safety reports

21.4 Offshore Safety Cases

21.5 Problem Areas

21.6 The COMAH Directive (1999 and 2005 Amendment)

21.7 Rail

21.8 Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide

Chapter 22: Integrity of Safety-Related Systems

22.1 Safety-Related or Safety-Critical?

22.2 Safety-Integrity Levels (SILs)

22.3 Programable electronic systems (PESs)

22.4 Current guidance

22.5 Framework for Certification

Chapter 23: A Case Study: The Datamet Project

23.1 Introduction

23.2 The Datamet Concept

23.3 The Contract

23.4 Detailed Design

23.5 Syndicate Study

23.6 Hints

Chapter 24: A case study: gas detection system

24.1 Safety-Integrity Target

24.2 Random Hardware Failures

24.3 ALARP

24.4 Architectures

24.5 Life-Cycle Activities

24.6 Functional Safety Capability

Chapter 25: A Case Study: Pressure Control System

25.1 The Unprotected System

25.2 Protection System

25.3 Assumptions

25.4 Reliability Block Diagram

25.5 Failure Rate Data

25.6 Quantifying the Model

25.7 Proposed Design and Maintenance Modifications

25.8 Modeling Common Cause Failure (Pressure Transmitters)

25.9 Quantifying the Revised Model

25.10 ALARP

25.11 Architectural Constraints

Appendix 1: Glossary

A1.1 Terms Related to Failure

A1.1.1 Failure

A1.1.2 Failure Mode

A1.1.3 Failure Mechanism

A1.1.4 Failure Rate

A1.1.5 Mean Time Between Failures and Mean Time to Fail

A1.1.6 Common Cause Failure

A1.1.7 Common Mode Failure

A1.2 Reliability Terms

A1.2.1 Reliability

A1.2.2 Redundancy

A1.2.3 Diversity

A1.2.4 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

A1.2.5 Fault Tree Analysis

A1.2.6 Cause Consequence Analysis (Event Trees)

A1.2.7 Reliability Growth

A1.2.8 Reliability Centered Maintenance

A1.3 Maintainability Terms

A1.3.1 Maintainability

A1.3.2 Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)

A1.3.3 Repair Rate

A1.3.4 Repair Time

A1.3.5 Down Time

A1.3.6 Corrective Maintenance

A1.3.7 Preventive Maintenance

A1.3.8 Least Replaceable Assembly (LRA)

A1.3.9 Second-Line Maintenance

A1.4 Terms Associated with Software

A1.4.1 Software

A1.4.2 Programable Device

A1.4.3 High-Level Language

A1.4.4 Assembler

A1.4.5 Compiler

A1.4.6 Diagnostic Software

A1.4.7 Simulation

A1.4.8 Emulation

A1.4.9 Load Test

A1.4.10 Functional Test

A1.4.11 Software Error

A1.4.12 Bit Error Rate

A1.4.13 Automatic Test Equipment (ATE)

A1.4.14 Data Corruption

A1.5 Terms Related to Safety

A1.5.1 Hazard

A1.5.2 Major Hazard

A1.5.3 Hazard Analysis

A1.5.4 HAZOP

A1.5.5 LOPA

A1.5.6 Risk

A1.5.7 Consequence Analysis

A1.5.8 Safe Failure Fraction

A1.5.9 Safety-Integrity

A1.5.10 Safety-Integrity level

A1.6 General Terms

A1.6.1 Availability (Steady State)

A1.6.2 Unavailability (PFD)

A1.6.3 Burn-In

A1.6.4 Confidence Interval

A1.6.5 Consumer’s Risk

A1.6.6 Derating

A1.6.7 Ergonomics

A1.6.8 Mean

A1.6.9 Median

A1.6.10 PFD

A1.6.11 Producer’s Risk

A1.6.12 Quality

A1.6.13 Random

A1.6.14 FRACAS

A1.6.15 RAMS

Appendix 2: Percentage Points of the Chi-Square Distribution

Appendix 3: Microelectronics Failure Rates

Appendix 4: General Failure Rates

Appendix 5: Failure mode percentages

Appendix 6: Human Error Probabilities

Appendix 7: Fatality rates

Appendix 8: Answers to Exercises

Chapter 2

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 9

Notes

Chapter 12

Chapter 25

25.2: Protection System

25.4: Reliability Block Diagram

25.6: Quantifying the Model

25.7 Revised diagrams

25.10 ALARP

25.11 Architectural Constraints

Appendix 9: Bibliography

Appendix 10: Scoring Criteria for BETAPLUS Common Cause Model

A10.1 Checklist and Scoring for Equipment Containing Programable Electronics

A10.2 Checklist and Scoring for Non-Programable Equipment For Programable Electronics For Sensors and Actuators

Appendix 11: Example of HAZOP

A11.1 Equipment Details

A11.2 HAZOP Worksheets

A11.3 Potential Consequences

Worksheet

Appendix 12: HAZID Checklist

Appendix 13: Markov Analysis of Redundant Systems

Index