Regolith Exploration Geochemistry in Arctic and Temperate Terrains book cover

Regolith Exploration Geochemistry in Arctic and Temperate Terrains

Geochemists, geologists, chemists, mathematicians, technicians and amateur prospectors alike will find this a practically oriented and comprehensive handbook for use in the field or office. It describes methodologies for assessing overburden in Arctic and temperate regions. Scientists can study the composition of bedrock by analyzing the overburden and ores found by the separation of the anomalies from the chemical background variation. This task is a very demanding one for previously glaciated terrain, where overburden consists totally of transported and mixed materials. It is possible to trace back the anomalies found in glacial till and sometimes those found in glacifluvial sediments. Special care in sampling and preparation of samples for analysis as well as very sensitive methods of analysis are necessary in obtaining results suitable for successful interpretation. The present handbook is dedicated to these vital problems. The genesis of overburden formations and the character of geochemical anomalies are discussed at length, after which examples are provided from a variety of situations. Articles concerning practical aspects of sampling, analysis and mathematical treatment, written specifically to help investigations are also included. The text is illustrated by 196 drawings, 32 tables and the selected bibliography contains 533 references. A key word list makes the handbook easy to use.

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Published: October 1992

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-89154-9

Reviews

  • As exploration extends to the northern parts of Canada and the former Soviet republics this book will be an invaluable reference source.
    IMM Minerals Industry International, 1993

Contents

  • 1. Introduction (L.K. Kauranne). Scope and contents of this volume. History of soil geochemical prospecting. General principles of element distribution. Overburden of arctic and temperate regions. Soils of arctic and temperate regions. Geochemical anomalies in the overburden. 2. Glacigenic Deposits (K. Eriksson). Glaciations and interglacials. Glacial processes. Glacial tills. Morainic landforms. Glacifluvial processes. Sorted glacial sediments. Formations of sorted sediments. Conclusions. 3. Nonglacial Overburden (L.K. Kauranne). Mineral formations. Organic formations. Conclusions. 4. Soil Types (L.K. Kauranne). Soil formation. Soil differentiation. Conclusions. 5. Geochemical Dispersion in the Secondary Environment (R. Salminen). Introduction. Clastic dispersion. Chemical dispersion. Discrimination of different anomaly types. Conclusions. 6. Glacigenic Dispersion of Coarse Till Fragments (V.-P.Salonen). Introduction. Frequency distribution parameters. Dispersal trains. Transport distance distributions. Conclusions. 7. Scale of Geochemical Surveys (R. Salminen). General. Sampling material. Sampling density. Sampling grid. Regional geochemical mapping. Local scale studies. Detailed studies. Conclusions. 8. Field Methods (R. Salminen). Introduction. Required field observations. Sampling equipment. Field measurements. Conclusions. 9. Analytical Aspects (P. Noras). Introduction. Performance of analytical methods. Pretreatment of samples. Decomposition of samples. Determination of elements. Future needs. 10. Recognition of Anomaly Patterns in Regional Geochemical Investigations (N. Gustavsson). Introduction. Statistical aspects of quality control. The univariate approach to anomaly recognition. The multivariate approach. Strategies for selecting statistical procedures. 11. Examples of Geochemical Exploration. 12. Focal Aspects of Soil Geochemistry Applied in Arctic and Temperate Regions (L.K. Kauranne). The place of soil geochemistry in exploration. Principles of geochemistry. Anomalies. Scale. Sampling material. Sampling density and depth. Sample preparation and analysis. Interpretation of results. Follow-up. References. References Index. Subject Index.

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