### Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition

List of Symbols

1 Fundamentals of Thermal Radiation

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Nature of Thermal Radiation

1.3 Basic Laws of Thermal Radiation

1.4 Emissive Power

1.5 Solid Angles

1.6 Radiative Intensity

1.7 Radiative Heat Flux

1.8 Radiation Pressure

1.9 Visible Radiation (Luminance)

1.10 Radiative Intensity in Vacuum

1.11 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Opaque Surfaces

1.12 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Gases

1.13 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Solids and Liquids

1.14 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Particles

1.15 The Radiative Transfer Equation

1.16 Outline of Radiative Transport Theory

2 Radiative Property Predictions from Electromagnetic Wave Theory

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Macroscopic Maxwell Equations

2.3 ElectromagneticWave Propagation in Unbounded Media

2.4 Polarization

2.5 Reflection and Transmission

2.6 Theories for Optical Constants

3 Radiative Properties of Real Surfaces

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Definitions

3.3 Predictions from ElectromagneticWave Theory

3.4 Radiative Properties of Metals

3.5 Radiative Properties of Nonconductors

3.6 Effects of Surface Roughness

3.7 Effects of Surface Damage and Oxide Films

3.8 Radiative Properties of Semitransparent Sheets

3.9 Special Surfaces

3.10 Experimental Methods

4 View Factors

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Definition of View Factors

4.3 Methods for the Evaluation of View Factors

4.4 Area Integration

4.5 Contour Integration

4.6 View Factor Algebra

4.7 The Crossed-Strings Method

4.8 The Inside Sphere Method

4.9 The Unit Sphere Method

5 Radiative Exchange Between Gray, Diffuse Surfaces

5.1 Introduction .

5.2 Radiative Exchange Between Black Surfaces

5.3 Radiative Exchange Between Gray, Diffuse Surfaces

5.4 Electrical Network Analogy

5.5 Radiation Shields

5.6 Solution Methods for the Governing Integral Equations

6 Radiative Exchange Between Partially Specular Gray Surfaces

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Specular View Factors

6.3 Enclosures with Partially Specular Surfaces

6.4 Electrical Network Analogy

6.5 Radiation Shields

6.6 Semitransparent Sheets (Windows)

6.7 Solution of the Governing Integral Equation

6.8 Concluding Remarks

7 Radiative Exchange Between Nonideal Surfaces

7.1 Introduction .

7.2 Radiative Exchange Between Nongray Surfaces

7.3 Directionally Nonideal Surfaces

7.4 Analysis for Arbitrary Surface Characteristics

8 The Monte Carlo Method for Surface Exchange

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Numerical Quadrature by Monte Carlo

8.3 Heat Transfer Relations for Radiative Exchange Between Surfaces

8.4 Random Number Relations for Surface Exchange

8.5 Surface Description

8.6 Ray Tracing

8.7 Efficiency Considerations

9 Surface Radiative Exchange in the Presence of Conduction and Convection

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Conduction and Surface Radiation-Fins

9.3 Convection and Surface Radiation

10 The Radiative Transfer Equation in Participating Media (RTE)

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Attenuation by Absorption and Scattering

10.3 Augmentation by Emission and Scattering

10.4 The Radiative Transfer Equation

10.5 Formal Solution to the Radiative Transfer Equation

10.6 Boundary Conditions for the Radiative Transfer Equation

10.7 Radiation Energy Density

10.8 Radiative Heat Flux

10.9 Divergence of the Radiative Heat Flux

10.10 Integral Formulation of the Radiative Transfer Equation

10.11 Overall Energy Conservation

10.12 Solution Methods for the Radiative Transfer Equation

11 Radiative Properties of Molecular Gases

11.1 Fundamental Principles

11.2 Emission and Absorption Probabilities

11.3 Atomic and Molecular Spectra

11.4 Line Radiation

11.5 Nonequilibrium Radiation

11.6 High-Resolution Spectroscopic Databases

11.7 Spectral Models for Radiative Transfer Calculations

11.8 Narrow Band Models

11.9 Narrow Band k-Distributions

11.10 Wide Band Models

11.11 Total Emissivity and Mean Absorption Coefficient

11.12 Experimental Methods

12 Radiative Properties of Particulate Media

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Absorption and Scattering from a Single Sphere

12.3 Radiative Properties of a Particle Cloud

12.4 Radiative Properties of Small Spheres (Rayleigh Scattering)

12.5 Rayleigh-Gans Scattering

12.6 Anomalous Di raction

12.7 Radiative Properties of Large Spheres

12.8 Absorption and Scattering by Long Cylinders

12.9 Approximate Scattering Phase Functions

12.10 Radiative Properties of Irregular Particles and Aggregates

12.11 Radiative Properties of Combustion Particles

12.12 Experimental Determination of Radiative Properties of Particles

13 Radiative Properties of Semitransparent Media

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Absorption by Semitransparent Solids

13.3 Absorption by Semitransparent Liquids

13.4 Radiative Properties of Porous Solids

13.5 Experimental Methods

14 Exact Solutions for One-Dimensional Gray Media

14.1 Introduction

14.2 General Formulation for a Plane-Parallel Medium

14.3 Plane Layer of a Nonscattering Medium

14.4 Plane Layer of a Scattering Medium

14.5 Radiative Transfer in Spherical Media

14.6 Radiative Transfer in Cylindrical Media

14.7 Numerical Solution of the Governing Integral Equations

15 Approximate Solution Methods for One-Dimensional Media

15.1 The Optically Thin Approximation

15.2 The Optically Thick Approximation (Di usion Approximation)

15.3 The Schuster-Schwarzschild Approximation

15.4 The Milne-Eddington Approximation (Moment Method)

15.5 The Exponential Kernel Approximation

16 The Method of Spherical Harmonics (*P*_{N}-Approximation)

16.1 Introduction

16.2 General Formulation of the *P*_{N}-Approximation

16.3 The *P*_{N}-Approximation for a One-Dimensional Slab

16.4 Boundary Conditions for the *P*_{N}-Method

16.5 The *P*_{1}-Approximation

16.6 *P*_{3}- and Higher-Order Approximations

16.7 Simplified *P*_{N}-Approximation

16.8 The Modified Differential Approximation

16.9 Comparison of Methods

17 The Method of Discrete Ordinates (*S*_{N}-Approximation)

17.1 Introduction

17.2 General Relations

17.3 The One-Dimensional Slab

17.4 One-Dimensional Concentric Spheres and Cylinders

17.5 Multidimensional Problems

17.6 The Finite Volume Method

17.7 The Modified Discrete Ordinates Method

17.8 Even-Parity Formulation

17.9 Other Related Methods

17.10 Concluding Remarks

18 The Zonal Method

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Surface Exchange- No Participating Medium

18.3 Radiative Exchange in Gray Absorbing/Emitting Media

18.4 Radiative Exchange in Gray Media with Isotropic Scattering

18.5 Radiative Exchange through a Nongray Medium

18.6 Determination of Direct Exchange Areas

19 Collimated Irradiation and Transient Phenomena

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Reduction of the Problem

19.3 The Modified *P*_{1}-Approximation with Collimated Irradiation

19.4 Short-Pulsed Collimated Irradiation with Transient Effects

20 Solution Methods for Nongray Extinction Coefficients

20.1 Introduction

20.2 The Mean Beam Length Method

20.3 Semigray Approximations

20.4 The Stepwise-Gray Model (Box Model)

20.5 General Band Model Formulation

20.6 TheWeighted-Sum-of- Gray-Gases (WSGG) Model

20.7 *k-*Distribution Models

20.8 The Full Spectrum *k-*Distribution (FSK) Method for Homogeneous Media

20.9 The Spectral-Line-BasedWeighted Sum of Gray Gases (SLW)

20.10 The FSK Method for Nonhomogeneous Media

20.11 Evaluation of *k*-Distributions

20.12 Higher Order *k*-Distribution Methods

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21 The Monte Carlo Method for Participating Media

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Heat Transfer Relations for Participating Media

21.3 Random Number Relations for Participating Media

21.4 Treatment of Spectral Line Structure E ects

21.5 Overall Energy Conservation

21.6 Discrete Particle Fields

21.7 Efficiency Considerations

21.8 Backward Monte Carlo

21.9 Direct Exchange Monte Carlo

21.10 Example Problems

22 Radiation Combined with Conduction and Convection

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Combined Radiation and Conduction

22.3 Melting and Solidification with Internal Radiation

22.4 Combined Radiation and Convection in Boundary Layers

22.5 Combined Radiation and Free Convection

22.6 Combined Radiation and Convection in Internal Flow

22.7 Combined Radiation and Combustion

22.8 Interfacing Between Turbulent Flow Fields and Radiation

22.9 Interaction of Radiation with Turbulence

22.10 Radiation in Concentrating Solar Energy Systems

23 Inverse Radiative Heat Transfer

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Solution Methods

23.3 Regularization

23.4 Gradient-Based Optimization

23.5 Metaheuristics

23.6 Summary of Inverse Radiation Research

24 Nanoscale Radiative Transfer

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Coherence of Light

24.3 EvanescentWaves

24.4 Radiation Tunneling

24.5 SurfaceWaves (Polaritons)

24.6 Fluctuational Electrodynamics

24.7 Heat Transfer Between Parallel Plates

24.8 Experiments on Nanoscale Radiation

A Constants and Conversion Factors

B Tables for Radiative Properties of Opaque Surfaces

C Blackbody Emissive Power Table

D View Factor Catalogue

E Exponential Integral Functions

F Computer Codes

Acknowledgments

Index